Geotechnical Properties of Some Clay Deposits in Some Parts of Southwestern Nigeria in Relation to Its Engineering Implications on Constructions

O. Andre-Obayanju (eology Department, University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria)
A. J. Edegbai (Geology Department, University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria)
O. J. Imarhiagbe (Division of Earth Sciences and Geography, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany)

Article ID: 4958



Twenty-two clay samples from Oduna, Okada, and Etsako clay deposits in Southwestern Nigeria were subjected to Geotechnical analysis to evaluate their impact on engineering, especially on construction. The results revealed that the clays deposits were majorly fine-grained texture (<60%), with Plasticity ranging from 23% to 121%, Liquid Limit (25%~205%) having plasticity of medium to very high with a specific gravity from 1.93 to 2.58. Using the American association of state highway and ransportation office (AASHTO) and Unified system classification scheme (USCS), the samples fell within A-7-6 (clayey soil) indicating a subgrade that is fair to poor and within the CL-CH category of fine-grained soil with medium to very high plasticity. Compaction having maximum dry density (MDD) to optimum moisture content (OMC) ranges from 0.94 g/cm3 ~1.68 g/cm3 to 11.9%~44.5%, Triaxial result with cohesion between 0.33~35 and shear strength from 44~120 and California bearing ratio for unsoaked bottom 7.52~40, top 4.82~39.18 and soaked bottom 2.89~30.41, top 4.21~33.53. The geotechnical properties of the clay deposits do not meet the standard requirement hence the implication in engineering might be susceptibility to construction failures.


Clay deposits; Geotechnical; Engineering; Edo

Full Text:



[1] Atkinson, J., 2014. Fundamentals of Ground Engineering. 1st ed, CRC press, Taylor and Francis group, illustrated edition, 242 pages.

[2] Whittens, D.G.A., Brooks, J.R.V., 1971. The Penguin Dictionary of Geology, Penguin Books. pp. 1-515.

[3] Moore, D.M., 1996. Definition of clay and clay min-eral: joint Report of the AIPEA Nomenclature Committees. Clays Clay Miners. 44, 710-712.

[4] Miblenz, R.C., King, M.E., 2002. Physical-Chemical properties and Engineering performance of Clays, Encyclopedia of Soil Science Marcel Dekker, Inc. AH rights reserved.

[5] Onyeobi, T.U.S., Imeokparia, E.G., Ilegieuno, O.A., et al., 2013. Compositional, Geotechnical and Industrial Characteristics of some clay bodies in Southern Nigeria. Journal of Geography and Geology, Published by Canadian center of Science and Education. 5(2), 73-83. DOI:

[6] Reeves, G.M., Sims, I., Cripps, J.C., 2006. Clay minerals used in construction. Geological Society of London, Engineering Geology Special Publication. 21, 1-530.

[7] Andre- Obayanju, O., Ireaja, C.C., 2022. Geotechnical Evaluation of Road failure along 20th street, BDPA, Benin City, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management. 26(5), 809-881.DOI:

[8] Nwajide, C.S., 2013. Nigeria Sedimentary Basins, CSS bookshops limited, Lagos. pp. 321-332.

[9] Federal Ministry of Works and Housing, 1997. General specification for roads and Bridges, Vol 2 Federal highway department. FMWH. pp. 317.

[10] B.S. 1377, 1975. Methods of test for soils for Civil Engineering Purpose. British Standard Institution HMSO London.

[11] British Standard Institution, 1990. Method of test for soils for Civil Engineering Properties (BS1377), British Standard institution, London 1990. pp. 143.

[12] Arora, K.K., 2008. Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Lomus offset press, Delhi.

[13] Bowles, J.E., 2012. Engineering Properties of soils and their measurements, 4th edition, McGraw Hill Education (India) Private limited, New Delhi.

[14] Gidigazu, M.D., 1976. Laterite soil Engineering. Pedogenesis and Engineering principles. Development in Geotechnical Engineering, Elsevier Amsterdam. pp. 554.

[15] Mesida, E.A., 1981. Laterites on the Highway - Understanding Soil Behaviour. West African Technical Review. pp. 112-118.

[16] Smith, G.N., Smith, G.N.I., 1998. Elements of soil Mechanics, Seventh Edition, Blackwell science. pp. 509.

[17] Casagrande, A., 1948. Classification and identification of soils. Transactions, ASCE. 113, 901-930.

[18] O’Flaherty, C.A., 1998. Highway Engineering Vol2 Edward Amold Publishers, London UK.

[19] Alayaki, F., Al-Tabbaa, A., Ayotamuno, J., 2015. Defining Niger Delta Soils: Are They Laterites? Civil and Environmental Research. 7(5).

[20] Dafalla, M.A., 2013. Effect of clay and moisture content on direct shear test for clay-sand mixtures. Advanced Material Science Engineering. pp. 1-8.

[21] MollaHassani, A., Alavi, A.H., Gandomi, A.H., et al., 2011. Non-linear neural based modelling of soil cohesion intercept. KSCE journal of Civil Engineering. 15(5), 831-840. DOI:

[22] Skempton, A.W., 1953. The colloidal activity of clays. Proceeding 3rd ICSMFE, Zurich. 1, 57-61.

[23] Simeon, A.B., Gieeseve, J., Bidlo, G., 1973. Use of lateritic soils for road constructions in Northern Dahomey. Engineering Geology, Amsterdam. 7, 197-218.

[24] Gidigasu, M.D., 1980. Geotechnical evaluation of residual gravels in pavement construction. Elsevier Journal of Engineering Geology. 15(3-4), 173-194. DOI:

[25] Iheme, K.O., Obaro, R.I., Okolo, C.J., et al., 2021. Geotechnical and Stability studies for subgrade construction materials around Baba-ode and Obada area Southwestern Nigeria. COOU journal of Physical Sciences (CJPS). 4(1), 232-240.

[26] Andre-Obayanju, O., Onyeobi, T.U.S., Imarhiagbe, O.J., 2017. Comparative evaluation of Geotechnical properties of red tropical soils and anthills from parts of Edo state. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management (JASEM). 21(7), 1250-1255. DOI:

[27] Ikubuwaje, C.O., Fakolade, O.R., Rotimi, I.A., 2019. Comparative analyses of physiochemical assessment of Sedimentary and Basement clays, Southwestern, and Nigeria: Implication for Engineering application. Journal of Multidisciplinary Engineering Science and Technology (JMEST). 6(12), 156-162.

[28] Ogbuchukwu, P.O., Okeke, O.C., Ahiarakwen, C.A., et al., 2019. Geotechnical properties of expansive soils in Awka and environs, Southeastern Nigeria in relation to Engineering problems. International Journal of Applied Science and Research. 2(4), 79-94.


  • There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright © 2022 O. Andre-Obayanju, A.J. Edegbai, O.J. Imarhiagbe Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.