Thermal Indices Influence on Occupants’ Window Opening Behaviours: A Case of Ibadan and Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria

Abdulrasaq Kunle Ayinla (Department of Architecture, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso)
Ilelabayo Ismail Adebisi (Department of Architecture, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso)
Olubunmi Adedayo Olaoye (Department of Architectural Technology, Osun State Polytechnic, Iree, Osun State.)
Emmanuel Oloruntoba Aina (Department of Architecture, University of Ilorin, Ilorin.)


Window opening operations are considered as one of the significant way of regulating indoor climate and maintaining thermal comfort in buildings, even when alternative active devices such as fans and air conditioners are available. This study investigates responses of occupants of the traditional core areas of Ibadan and Ogbomoso to thermal comfort conditions (thermal stress) through window opening behaviours. Climatic data of the two cities were subjected to Evans scale to predict their day and night thermal stress and questionnaires were administered to know how occupants respond to changing thermal conditions through window opening behaviours. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used in analysing the data.
The study found the morning periods to be the most comfortable, the afternoon periods offer the most hot discomfort condition and cold discomfort is mostly experienced in the evening periods in both cities. Findings revealed that majority of occupants in both cities prefer to keep their windows opened in the morning and afternoon periods and an increase was observed in the numbers of occupants who prefer to keep their windows closed in the evening periods. This is an indication that building occupants in both cities actively respond to thermal stress using window opening operations. Results obtained from chi square analysis concluded that there is a significant relationship between occupants’ window opening behaviour and thermal conditions at different periods of the day in both cities. Recommendations were given on how to improve on window opening systems in the future.


Thermal stress; thermal indexes; thermal comfort; indoor comfort; window opening operations; Traditional core areas

Full Text:



Ayinla, A.K. (2018), “Assessment of Indoor Environmental Quality of Houses in Selected Cities in Oyo State”, an Unpublished Ph.D Thesis in the Department of Architecture, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria.

Adunola A.O. (2006),“A study of thermal Comfort in Naturally Ventilated residential Buildings in Olubadan Estate Ibadan”. An Unpublished Master of Philosophy Thesis at the Obafemi Awolowo University, (OAU), Ile – Ife Nigeria.

Ajibola, K. (1997), “Ventilation of spaces in warm – humid climate – case study of some house types”. Journal of Renewable Energy. Vol. 10, No. 1, pp 61-70. Doi: 10.1016/0960-1481(95)00128-X

Ogunsote, O.O and Prucnal-Ogunsote, B. (2003), “Choice of Thermal Index for Architectural Design with Climate in Nigeria”, Habitat International, Vol. 27, pp 63-81.

Lai, A.C.K, Mui, K.W, Wong, L.T and Law, L.Y (2009): “An Evaluation Model for Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) acceptance in residential buildings”. Energy Built Vol. 41 No 9. pp 930 – 936.

ASHRAE Standard 55 (2004): “Thermal environmental conditions for human occupancy”. Atlanta: American Society of heating, refrigerating and air conditioning engineers.

Institute of Medicine of the National Academics, (2011). “Climate Change, the Indoor Comfort and Health”, the National Academics press. Retrieved from

SKAT (1993), “Climate Responsive Building- Appropriate Building Construction in Tropical and Subtropical Regions”.

Adebisi, I.I, Ayinla, A.k and Okeyinka Y.R, (2018): “Energy Efficient Buildings in Tropical Climate through PassiveTechniques- An Overview”, Journal of Environment and Earth Science, Vol. 8 No 4 pp 45-50.

Ogunsote, O. O., Prucnal-Ogunsote, B. and Adegbie M. (2011). “Optimizing Passive Cooling Systems in

Residential Buildings: A Case Study of Akure, Nigeria”. Retrieved from

Rijal, H.B, Humphreys, M.A. and Nicol, J.F. (2018)“Development of a window opening algorithm based on adaptive thermal comfort to predict occupant behavior in Japanese dwellings. Japan Architecture.

Amy, K., Shuoqi, W., Ji-Eun, K. and Dorothy, R. (2019), “Indoor/Outdoor Environmental Parameters and

Window-Opening Behavior: A Structural Equation Modelling Analysis”, MDPI Publishers, Vol 9, No. 94.

Okeyinka, Y.R. (2016), “Socio-Economic Characteristics of Residents of Multi-habited Houses in Ogbomoso, South West Nigeria”, Global Journal of Human Social Science: Sociology and Culture. Vol. 16, Issue 6.

Ayinla, A.K., Olaniyan, S.A. and Okeyinka, Y.R. (2013), “Bio Climatic Characteristics of Residential Building Types in the Traditional Core of Ogbomoso Southwest Nigeria”, International Journal of Science, Environment and Technology, Vol. 2, No 1462-1478.

Adebisi, I.I, Okeyinka Y.R. and Ayinla, A.k., (2018a), “Evaluating the Appropriateness of Passive Techniques Used in Achieving Thermal Comfort in Buildings: A Case of Lautech College of Health Sciences,

Ogbomoso”, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, International Journal of Civil and Architectural Engineering Vol:12, No:1.

National Bureau of Statistics (NBS), (2009). “Annual Abstract of Statistics, 2009. Abuja: National Bureau of Statistics, Nigeria”

Adebisi I.I, Okeyinka Y.R and Ayinla A.K (2018b): “Appraisal of the Impact of the Gender of Household head on Housing Condition in Egbeda, Iragbiji, Osun State”. Journal of African Studies and Development- Vol. 10(2) pp 19-28. DOI: 10.5897/JASD2016.0429



  • There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright © 2021 Abdulrasaq Kunle Ayinla, Ilelabayo Ismail Adebisi, Olubunmi Adedayo Olaoye, Emmanuel Oloruntoba Aina Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.