The Factor that Affects Biophilia Application at the Workplace

Ebtesam Alawadhi (Department of Landscape Architecture, Kulliyyah of Architecture and Environmental Design, International Islamic University, Malaysia)
Jamilah Othman (Department of Landscape Architecture, Kulliyyah of Architecture and Environmental Design, International Islamic University, Malaysia)
Haza Hanurhaza Md Jani (Department of Landscape Architecture, Kulliyyah of Architecture and Environmental Design, International Islamic University, Malaysia)

Article ID: 3221



Many theories in sociology and psychology encourage people to maintain and contact with nature. Biophilia, for instance, examines the connection between humans and nature within the built environment. It is considered one of the solutions to human isolation from nature, especially in the workplace. This study examined the factors of employee's awareness and preference that affect biophilia application at the workplace. This study's primary data collection method is a survey questionnaire through which responses from 167 employees at the International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) were collected. The findings show that employee's awareness and preference have a significant positive effect on the biophilia application. Further research on this topic is necessary to understand other factors that may affect human's connection with nature at the workplace.


Biophilia;Human and nature;Awareness;Preference

Full Text:



[1] AIA HWP. (2019). Healthiest Workplace by AIA Vitality | AIA Insurance. https://healthiestworkplace.

[2] Alawadhi, E., Othman, J., & Md Jani, H. H. (2020). Reviewing the impacts of biophilic elements at workplace. PalArch’s Journal of Archeology of Egypt/ Egyptology, 17(9), 7410-7420.

[3] Al Horr, Y., Arif, M., Kaushik, A., Mazroei, A., Katafygiotou, M., & Elsarrag, E. (2016). Occupant productivity and office indoor environment quality: A review of the literature. Building and Environment, 105, 369-389.

[4] Alker, J., Malanca, M., Pottage, C., & O'Brien, R. (2014). Health, well-being & productivity in offices: The next chapter for green building. World Green Building Council. default/.

[5] Bamberg, S., & Rees, J. (2015). Environmental Attitudes and Behaviour: Measurement. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences (Second Edition), 699-705. B978-0-08-097086-8.91066-3.

[6] Browning, W., Ryan, C., & Clancy, J. (2014). 14 Patterns of Biophilic Design: Improving Health & Well-Being in the Built Environment. Terrapin Bright Green, LLC, 1-60.

[7] Cooper, C., & Browning, B. (2015). Human Space: The Global Impact of Biophilic Design in the Workplace. Human Spaces Report.

[8] Dillon, B. R. (2008). Rebuilding Biophilia. (Unpublished Master Thesis). University of Cincinnati.

[9] Fatoki, O. (2019). Employees'pro-Environmental Behaviour in Small and Medium Enterprises: The Role of Enjoyment, Connectedness to Nature and Environmental Knowledge. Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal, 25(4), 1-15.

[10] Freese, M., & Fultz, A. (2012). Nature Awareness and Science Achievement in Middle School: A Correlational Study. (Unpublished Master Degree). Johnson University.

[11] Geng, X., Sy, C. A., Kwiecien, T. D., Ji, X., Peng, C., Rastogi, R., ... & Ding, Y. (2015). Reduced cerebral monocarboxylate transporters and lactate levels by ethanol and normobaric oxygen therapy in severe transient and permanent ischemic stroke. Brain Research, 1603, 65-75.

[12] Hassan, A. A., Noordin, T. A., & Sulaiman, S. (2010). The status on the level of environmental awareness in the concept of sustainable development amongst secondary school students. Procedia Social and Behavioural Sciences, 2(2), 1276-1280.

[13] Heerwagen, J. (2009). Biophilia, Health, and Well-being. In: L. Campbell and A. Wiesen (Eds.), Restorative Commons: Creating Health and Well-being through Urban Landscapes (pp. 39-57). Newtown Square: USDA Forest Service.

[14] Hidalgo, A. K. (2014). Biophilic design, restorative environments and well-being. Proceedings of the Colors of Care: The 9th International Conference on Design & Emotion (pp. 535-544).

[15] Holahan, C. (1984). Cognition and Environment: Functioning in an Uncertain World. Psyccritiques, 29(1).

[16] Hui, F. K. P., & Aye, L. (2018). Occupational stress and workplace design. Buildings, 8 (10), 133.

[17] Kayhan, K. S. (2017). Examination of Biophilia Phenomenon in the context of sustainable architecture. International Sustainable Buildings Symposium (pp. 80-101). Springer, Cham.

[18] Kellert, S. R. (1993). The Biological Basis for Human Values of Nature. In: S.R. Kellert and E.O. Wilson (Eds.), The Biophilia Hypothesis, 42-69. New Washington: Island Press.

[19] Kellert, S., & Calabrese, E. (2015). The Practice of Biophilic Design. London: Terrapin Bright LLC.

[20] Kellert, S. R., Heerwagen, J., & Mador, M. (2011). Biophilic Design: the Theory, Science and Practice of Bringing Buildings to Life. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

[21] Krčmářová, J. (2009). E.O. Wilson's concept of biophilia and the environmental movement in the USA. Klaudyán: Internet J Histor Geogr Environ History, 6(1/2), 4-17.

[22] Kurnia, D. (2017). Concept of Sustainability and Biophilic Design in Landscape Architecture. Вестник Росздравнадзора, 4, 9-15.

[23] Mayer, F. S., & Frantz, C. M. (2004). The Connectedness to Nature Scale: A Measure of Individuals' Feeling in Community with Nature. Journal of environmental psychology, 24(4), 503-515.

[24] Nasar, J. L. (1984). Visual Preferences in Urban Street Scenes: a Cross-cultural Comparison between Japan and the United States. Journal of cross-cultural psychology, 15(1), 79-93.

[25] Nieuwenhuis, M., Knight, C., Postmes, T., & Haslam, S. A. (2014). The Relative Benefits of Green versus Lean Office Space: Three Field Experiments. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 20(3), 199.

[26] Ones, D. S., & Dilchert, S. (2012). Environmental sustainability at Work: A Call to Action. Industrial and Organisational Psychology, 5(4), 444-466.

[27] RCF Group. (2018). The Workspace NudgeTM for Well-Being.

[28] Sekaran, U. (2003). Research Methods of Business: A Skill Building Approach. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

[29] Taherdoost, H. (2017). Determining sample size; How to calculate survey sample size. International Journal of Economics and Management Systems, 2(2), 237-239. ijems.

[30] Ulrich, R. S. (1993). Biophilia, Biophobia, and Natural Landscapes. In: S.R. Kellert and E.O. Wilson (Eds.), The Biophilia Hypothesis, 42-69. New Washington: Island Press.

[31] Wiernik, B. M., Dilchert, S., & Ones, D. S. (2016). Age and Employee Green Behaviours: A Meta-Analysis. Frontiers in psychology, 7, 194.

[32] Wilkie, S., & Stavridou, A. (2013). Influence of Environmental Preference and Environment Type Congruence on Judgments of Restoration Potential. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 12(2), 163-170.

[33] Wilson, E. O. (1984). Biophilia, the Human Bond with Other Species. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, pg.157.


  • There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright © 2021 Jamilah Othman, Ebtesam Alawadhi, Haza Hanurhaza Md Jani

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.