Soil improvement using waste materials: A review

Kiran Devi (Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra)
Ashish Chhachhia (GGS Govt. Polytechnic Education Society, Cheeka, Haryana, India-136034)
Amit Kumar (Civil Engineering Department, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra, India-136119)


With the industrialization, industrial by-products are produced in large quantities and creates nuisance to natural habitats. The disposal of these wastes like fly ash, marble powder, construction and demolition (C&D) waste, brick powder, agricultural wastes etc. has become the potential threat to the ecosystem and need some real solutions. The direct disposal of such wastes into open land or water bodies causes circumambient pollution. One of the potential solutions is to utilize these wastes in the construction industry on large scale as subgrade rehab or additive to cement based materials. In the present study, the compaction and strength characteristics of stabilized soil was studied by using various waste materials i.e. lime, cement, plastic waste, industrial waste, fibre, mushroom waste, wet olive pomace etc. and reviewed. The addition of additives improved the engineering properties of soil significantly.  


Soil stabilization; industrial waste materials; maximum dry density; unconfined compressive strength; California Bearing Ratio

Full Text:



Sharma A, Sharma RK. Sub-grade characteristics of soil stabilized with agricultural waste, constructional waste, and lime. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment 2020.

Al-Bared MAM, Marto A, Latifi N. Utilization of Recycled Tiles and Tyres in Stabilization of Soils and Production of Construction Materials – A State-of-the-Art Review. KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering 2018;22:3860-3874.

Kumar A, Soni DK. Strength and microstructural characteristics evaluation of a fibre reinforced fine grained soil using Taguchi technique. International Journal of Microstructure and Materials Properties 2019;14:.478 – 494

Kumar A, Soni DK. Effect of calcium and chloride based stabilizer on plastic properties of fine grained soil. International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology 2019;12:537–545.

Kumar A, Devi K, Singh M, Soni DK. Significance of Stone Waste in Strength Improvement of Soil. Journal of Building Material Science 2019;1:32-36.

Devi K, Saini B, Aggarwal P. Combined use of accelerators and stone slurry powder in cement mortar. ICSWMD 2019;LNCE 21:1-8. DOI:

Devi K, Saini B, Aggarwal P. Utilization of Kota stone slurry powder and accelerators in concrete. Computers and Concrete 2019;23:189-201.

Devi K, Saini B, Aggarwal P. Long-term performance of concrete using additives. International Journal of Microstructure and Materials Properties 2020;15:58-85.

Cucci G, Lacolla G, Caranfa L. 2008, Improvement of soil properties by application of olive oil waste. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 2008;28:521–526.

Jafari M, Esna-ashari M. Effect of waste tire cord reinforcement on unconfined compressive strength of lime stabilized clayey soil under freeze–thaw condition. Cold Regions Science and Technology 2012;82:21–29.

Guo SL, Li Q, Li X, Zhao Y, Wang X. 2013. Effects of mushroom waste on improvement of reclaimed soil quality in coal mining areas. Journal Of Coal Science & Engineering (China) 2013;19:237-242.

Ural N, Karakurt C, Cömert AT. 2013, Influence of marble wastes on soil improvement and concrete production, Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management 2014;16:500-508.

Sharma RK, Hymavathi J. Effect of fly ash, construction demolition waste and lime on geotechnical characteristics of a clayey soil: a comparative study. Environmental Earth Sciences 2016;75:377.

Soltani-Jigheh H. Compressibility and Shearing Behavior of Clayey Soil Reinforced by Plastic Waste. International Journal of Civil Engineering2016;14:479-489.

Hasan U, Chegenizadeh A, Budihardjo MA, Nikraz H. Experimental Evaluation of Construction Waste and Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag as Alternative Soil Stabilisers. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering 2016;34:1707–1722.

ÇelikS. An Experimental Investigation of Utilizing Waste Red Mud in Soil Grouting. KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering 2017;21:1191-1200.

Maity J, Chattopadhyay BC, Mukherjee SP. 2017, Improvement of Characteristics of Clayey Soil Mixed with Randomly Distributed Natural Fibers. Journal of The Institution of Engineers (India); Series A 2018;99:55-65.

Rahgozar MA, Saberian M, Li J. Soil stabilization with non-conventional eco-friendly agricultural waste materials: An experimental study. Transportation Geotechnics 2018;14;52-60.

Öncü Ş, Bilsel H. 2018. Utilization of waste marble to enhance volume change and strength characteristics of sand-stabilized expansive soil. Environmental Earth Sciences 2018;77:461

Peddaiah S, Burman A, Sreedeep S. Experimental Study on Effect of Waste Plastic Bottle Strips in Soil Improvement.

Geotechnical and Geological Engineering 2018;36:2907-2920.

Noorzad R, Motevalian S. Improvement of Clayey Soil with Lime and Industrial Sludge. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering 2018;36:2957-2966.

Khazaei J, Moayedi H. Soft Expansive Soil Improvement by Eco-Friendly Waste and Quick Lime. Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering 2019;44:8337-8346.

Sharma A, Sharma RK. 2019, Effect of addition of construction–demolition waste on strength characteristics of high plastic clays. Innovative Infrastructure Solutions 2019;4:27.

Parihar NS, Garlapati VK, Ganguly R. Stabilization of Black Cotton Soil Using Waste Glass. C. M. Hussain (ed.), Handbook of Environmental Materials Management,

Bibak H, Khazaei J, Moayedi H. Investigating the Effect of a New Industrial Waste on Strengthening the Soft Clayey Soil. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering 2020;38:1165-1183.

Shahsavani S, Vakili AH, Mokhberi M. The effect of wetting and drying cycles on the swelling-shrinkage behavior of the expansive soils improved by nanosilica and industrial waste. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment 2020;79:4765-4781.

Aydin K , Sivrikaya O, Uysal F. Efects of curing time and freeze–thaw cycle on strength of soils with high plasticity stabilized by waste marble powder. Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management 2020.

Deboucha S, MamouneSmA, Sail Y, Ziani H. Effects of Ceramic Waste, Marble Dust, and Cement in Pavement Sub-base Layer. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering 2020;38:3331-3340.

Sharma RK. 2020. Utilization of Fly Ash and Waste Ceramic in Improving Characteristics of Clayey Soil: A Laboratory Study. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering 2020;38:5327-5340.

Bagriacik B, Mahmutluoglu B. A new experimental approach to the improvement of sandy soils with construction demolition waste and cement. Arabian Journal of Geosciences 2020;13:539.

Rivera JF, de Gutiérrez RM, Ramirez-Benavides S, Orobio A. Compressed and stabilized soil blocks with fly ash-based alkali-activated cements. Construction and Building Materials 2020;264:120285.

Jishnu VP, Sankar N, Chandrakaran S. Strength behaviour of cohesionless soil reinforced with coconut leaf let as a natural material. Materials Today: Proceedings 2020;31:S340-S347.



  • There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright © 2021 Kiran Devi, Ashish Chhachhia, Amit Kumar Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.