Effect Of Quartz Particle Size and Cement Replacement on Portland Limestone Cement properties

Olubajo Olumide Olu (Chemical Engineering Department, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Bauchi State, 740102, Nigeria)

Article ID: 5091

DOI: https://doi.org/10.30564/jbms.v4i2.5091


This research focuses on investigating the effect of quartz particle sizeand cement replacement on their physicomechnical properties. Portlandlimestone cement (PLC) was employed and replaced with quartz powder(QP) at various particle sizes (1.19 mm, 425 µm, 300 µm, 212 µm, <212µm) and cement replacement between 2.5 wt.% ~ 15 wt.% at interval of2.5 wt.% to study their impact on the cement properties. The PLC chemical composition revealed a relatively low lime and high silica contentcompared to the conventional cement. QP revealed a high silica, lime andsulphur contents compared to natural sand. A high consistence, elongatedsetting times and lower strengths and specific gravities were observed ascement was replaced with QP at a given particle size respectively. Theeffect of replacing cement with QP content between 2.5 wt.% and 15 wt.%at various particle sizes resulted in average increments by 45.32%, 23.13%and 36.06% for initial setting time, final setting time and water demandrespectively. This increase could be related with clinker diminution coupled with enhanced QP surface area and clinker diminution. Similarly, anincrease in the QP surface area at a given cement replacement led to higherwater consistence, retarded setting times and lower strength. The effect ofenhancing the QP’ surface area between 1.19 mm and below 212 µm at agiven cement replacement resulted in average increments by 26.27%, 8.61%and 7.49% for initial and final setting times and water demand respectively.The strength gain of the QP cement blend diminished significantly above30% up to 15 wt.% cement replacement especially beyond 3 days. The lowstrength could be due to the high-water consistence linked with silica content resulting in setting time retardation. The optimal QP content was determined at 5 wt.% owing to the fact that the physicomechnical properties didnot significantly deviate from the properties of control.


Quartz powder; Particle size; Consistence; Setting times; Mortar compressive strength

Full Text:



[1] Khan, M.N.N., Jamil, M., Karim, M.R., et al., 2017. Filler effect of pozzolanic materials on the strength and microstructure development of mortar. KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering. 21(1), 274-284.

[2] Soumya, G., Karthiga, S., 2018. Study on mechanical properties of concrete using silica fume and quartz sand as replacements. International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics. 119(14), 151-157.

[3] Zhang, H., Ji, T., Lin, X., 2019. Pullout behavior of steel fibers with different shapes from ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC) prepared with granite powder under different curing conditions. Construction and Building Materials. 211, 688-702.

[4] Du, J., Meng, W., Khayat, K.H., et al., 2021. New development of ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC). Composites Part B: Engineering. 224, 109220.

[5] Lin, R.S., Wang, X.Y., Zhang, G.Y., 2018. Effects of Quartz Powder on the Microstructure and Key Properties of Cement Paste. Sustainability. 10(3369), 1-16.

[6] Zuo, R.F., Du, G.X., Yang, W.G., et al., 2016. Mineralogical and chemical characteristics of a powder and purified quartz from Yunnan Province. Open Geosci. 8, 606-611.

[7] Afahnwie, N., Kedia, A., Suh, C., et al., 2022. The Potential of Quartzitic Veins in SW Cameroon for High-Purity Quartz. International Journal of Geosciences. 13, 281-302.

[8] Friedman, H., Koegel, D., Gilden, M., et al., 2014. Retrieved from http://www.minerals.net/GeneralInfromation.aspx.

[9] Obot, M.U., Yawas, D.S., Aku, S.Y., et al., 2016. An assessment on the production of abrasive sandpaper from locally sourced materials. Tribology in Industry. 38(2), 176.

[10] Collivignarelli, M.C., Ricciardi, G.C.P., Miino, M.C., et al., 2020. The production of sustainable concrete with the use of alternative aggregates: A review. Sustainability. 12, 7903.

[11] Dash, M.K., Patro, S.K., Rath, A.K., 2016. Sustainable use of industrial-waste as partial replacement of fine aggregate for preparation of concrete – A review. International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment. 5(2), 484-516.

[12] Li, C., Jiang, L., 2020. Utilization of limestone powder as an activator for early-age strength improvement of slag concrete. Construction and Building Materials. 253, 119257.

[13] Moon, G.D., Oh, S., Jung, S.H., et al., 2017. Effects of the fineness of limestone powder and cement on the hydration and strength development of PLC concrete. Construction and Building Materials. 135, 129-136.

[14] Celik, K., Hay, R., Hargis, C.W., et al., 2019. Effect of volcanic ash pozzolan or limestone replacement on hydration of Portland cement. Construction and Building Materials. 197, 803-812.

[15] He, W., Liao, G., 2021. Effects of nano-CSH seed crystal on early-age hydration process of Portland cement. Fullerenes, Nanotubes and Carbon Nanostructures. 1-8.

[16] Zhu, J., Zhang, R., Zhang, Y., et al., 2019. The fractal characteristics of pore size distribution in cement-based materials and its effect on gas permeability. Scientific Reports. 9, 1-12.

[17] Lin, R.S., Wang, X.Y., 2021. Effects of cement types and addition of quartz and limestone on the normal and carbonation curing of cement paste. Construction and Building Materials. 305, 124799.

[18] Bezerra, A.C.S., Saraiva, S.L.C., Lara, L.F.S., et al., 2017. Effect of partial replacement with thermally processed sugar cane bagasse on the properties of mortars. Review of Materials. 22, 20. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/s1517-707620170 001.0117

[19] John, E., Matschei, T., Stephan, D., 2018. Nucleation seeding with calcium silicate hydrate–A review. Cement and Concrete Research. 113, 74-85.

[20] Bai, S., Guan, X., Li, G., 2022. Early-age hydration heat evolution and kinetics of Portland cement containing nano-silica at different temperatures. Construction and Building Materials. 334, 127363.

[21] Menezes, R.M.R.O., da Silva, R.M., Figueiredo, E.P., et al., 2018. Hydraulic binder obtained from recycled cement and sand powder. Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais. 11, 1178-1185.

[22] Yao, G., Cui, T., Zhang, J., et al., 2020. Effects of mechanical grinding on pozzolanic activity and hydration properties of quartz. Advanced Powder Technology. 31(11), 4500-4509.

[23] Kadri, E.H., Aggoun, S., De Schutter, G., et al., 2010. Combined effect of chemical nature and fineness of mineral powders on Portland cement hydration. Materials and Structures. 43, 665-673.

[24] Olubajo, O.O., Nuuman, A., Likita, N.S., 2020. The Effect of sugarcane bagasse ash on the properties of Portland limestone cement. American Journal of Construction and Building Materials. 4(2), 77-87.

[25] Olubajo, O.O., Isa, Y.M., Ayeni, S., et al., 2020. A Study on Ordinary Portland cement blended with Rice Husk Ash and Metakaolin. Path of Science. 6(1), 3001-3019. Available on website link: http://www.pos.org.

[26] Olubajo, O.O., Abubakar, J., Osha, O.A., 2020. The effect of eggshell ash and locust bean pod ash on the compressive strength of ternary cement. Path of Science. 6(3), 4001-4016. Available on website link: http://www.pos.org.

[27] Tavares, L.R.C., Junior, J.F.T., Costa, L.M., et al., 2020. Influence of quartz powder and silica fume on the performance of Portland cement. Scientific Reports.

[28] Tchamo, L.C.C., Libessart, L., Djelal, C., et al., 2020. Pozzolanic activity of kaolin containing aluminum hydroxide. Scientific Reports. 10, 2-13.

[29] Maljaee, H., Madadi, R., Paiva, H., et al., 2021. Incorporation of biochar in cementitious materials: A roadmap of biochar selection. Construction and Building Materials. 283, 122757.

[30] Saedi, A., Jamshidi-Zanjani, A., Darban, A.K., 2020. A review on different methods of activating tailings to improve their cementitious property as cemented paste and reusability. Journal of Environmental Management. 270, 110881.

[31] Olubajo, O.O., Osha, O.A., El-Natafty, U.A., et al., 2017. A study on Coal bottom ash and limestone effects on the hydration and physico-mechanical properties of ternary cement blends. Ph.D. Thesis. Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria. 1-305.

[32] Arroudj, K., Lanez, M., Oudjit, M.N., 2015. Characterization of cement mortar based on fine quartz, World Academy of Science Engineering and Technology. International Journal of Structural and Construction Engineering. 9(9), 1278-1281.

[33] Tikkanen, J., 2014. Effects of mineral powders on hydration process and hydration products in normal strength concrete. Construction and Building Materials. 72, 7-14.

[34] Popek, M., Sadowski, L., 2017. Selected physical properties of concrete modified using mineral powders. Procedia Engineering. 172, 891-896.

[35] Popek, M., Sadowski, L., 2017. Effect of selected mineral admixtures on mechanical properties of concrete. Key Engineering Materials. 728, 367-372.

[36] Popek, M., Sadowski, L., Szymanowski, J., 2016. Abrasion resistance of concrete containing selected mineral powders. Procedia Engineering. 153, 617-622.

[37] Ahmed, H.A.R., Mohamed, M., Mashaly, A.A., 2018. Mechanical and fracture mechanics properties of ultra-high-performance concrete. IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE). 15(5), 33-39.

[38] Galiska, A., Czarnecki, S., 2017. The effect of mineral powders derived from industrial wastes on selected mechanical properties of concrete. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 245, 1-7.

[39] Borges, A.L., Soares, S.M., Taís Freitas, T.O.G., et al., 2021. Evaluation of the pozzolanic activity of glass powder in three maximum grain sizes. Materials Research. 24(4), 1-11.

[40] IS:4031(Part 4):1988-Methods of physical tests for hydraulic cement (Determination of normal consistence).

[41] IS:4031(Part 5):1988-Methods of physical tests for hydraulic cement (Determination of initial and final setting times).

[42] ASTM C 191, 2008. Standard test method for time of setting of hydraulic cement by vicat needle. Annual Book of ASTM Standards.

[43] ASTM C 187, 2010. Standard test method for normal consistency of hydraulic cement. Annual Book of ASTM Standards.

[44] ASTM C 109, 2008. Standard test method for compressive strength of hydraulic cement mortars. Annual Book of ASTM Standards.

[45] ASTM C 618, 2008. Standard specification for coal fly ash and raw or calcined natural pozzolan for use in concrete. Annual Book of ASTM Standards.

[46] Olubajo, O., Waziri, H., 2022. Potentials of Balanite Endocarp Pod ash as a cement replacement material. Journal of Building Material Science. 4(1), 44-53. DOI: https://doi.org/10.30564/jbms.v4i1.4800

[47] Kumar, A., Oey, T., Falzone, G., et al., 2017. The filler effect: The influence of filler content and type on the hydration rate of tricalcium silicate. Journal of the American Ceramic Society. 100(7), 3316-3328.

[48] Hossain, M.M., Karim, M.R., Hasan, M., et al., 2016. Durability of mortar and concrete made up of pozzolans as a partial replacement of cement: A review. Construction and Building Materials. 116, 128-140.

[49] Celik, K., Hay, R., Hargis, C.W., et al., 2019. Effect of volcanic ash pozzolan or limestone replacement on hydration of Portland cement. Construction and Building Materials. 197, 803-812.

[50] Kejela, B.M., 2020. Waste paper ash as partial replacement of cement in concrete. American Journal of Construction and Building Materials. 4(1), 8-13.

[51] Olubajo, O.O., 2020. The Effect of Eggshell Powder and Saw Dust Ash on the physico-mechanical properties of blended cement. American Journal of Construction and Building Materials. 4(2), 78-88.

[52] Suraneni, P., Weiss, J., 2017. Examining the pozzolanicity of supplementary cementitious materials using isothermal calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. Cement & Concrete Composites. 83, 273-278.


  • There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright © 2022 OLUMIDE OLU OLUBAJO

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.