Toxic Effect of Different Neem Formulations against Pests and Mammals

Nadia Zikry Dimetry (Department of Pests and Plant Protection, National Research Centre, El-Bohouth St., Dokki, Cairo,12622, Egypt)


Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss), popularly known as traditional medicine is a native plant in India. Neem is regarded as a promising tree species  which can be  utilized in variety ways to benefit agricultural communities throughout the world. Neem based insecticides were efficient for the control of various pest species, but their low residual effect and lack of standardized formulations are problems for field application. Also, neem is somewhat have toxic effect in nature.  The incorporation of nanotechnology as a mean for nanopesticides is in the early stage of development. Nevertheless, the nanosphere formulation showed enhanced systemicity of the active ingredients and improved its penetration through the plant, due to their small size. Nanoencapsulated pesticides can provide controlled release kinetics, while efficiently enhancing permeability, stability, and solubility. Nanoencapsulation can enhance the pest-control efficiency over extended durations by preventing degradation of active ingredients under environmental conditions. This review is thus organized to critically assess the toxicological effects i.e to study the symptoms, mechanisms and detections of poisoning vertebrates especially people. The prepared neem nano-formulations compared with the bulk one have to be assessed on albino mice through two main approaches, i.e. determination of acute oral LD50 and study the toxic effect of sublethal dose (LD10) on some biochemical parameters. The effect of the prepared nano-formulations compared to the bulk one on various biomarkers, i.e. hematological, hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in albino mice after an oral administration of sub-lethal dose during sub-acute treatment were taken in consideration. Accordingly, this review should thus offer a valuable guide for establishing potential  benefits are emphasized, while little is known on safety or the adverse effects of nano-technologies in the agro-food sector.


Neem; Toxicity; Nano formulations;Non Target Organisms

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