Effect of Acids and Alkalis on the Resistance of a Polypropylene Geotextile Against Thermo-oxidation

Jose Ricardo Carneiro(Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto)
Paulo Joaquim Almeida()
Maria de Lurdes Lopes()

Abstract


The long-term behaviour of geosynthetics is one of the most important topics in the research about these materials. This work studies the effect of some liquids (water, sulphuric acid 0.1 mol.L-1 and sodium hydroxide 0.1 mol.L-1) in the resistance of a polypropylene geotextile against thermo-oxidation. For that purpose, the geotextile was (1) exposed in isolation to the liquids (immersion tests) and to thermo-oxidation (oven-ageing tests) and (2) exposed consecutively to both degradation tests (combined effect). The damage suffered by the geotextile in the degradation tests was evaluated by monitoring changes in its tensile behaviour. Based on the changes occurred in tensile strength, reduction factors were determined. The reduction factors obtained in the successive exposures to liquids and thermo-oxidation were compared with the reduction factors determined by the traditional methodology for the combined effect of those agents. The results, among other findings, showed the existence of an effect of sulphuric acid 0.1 mol.L-1 in the resistance of the geotextile against thermo-oxidation. Indeed, the successive exposure to sulphuric acid 0.1 mol.L-1 and thermo-oxidation (two agents that individually did not cause relevant damage) led to some degradation. Due to the interaction occurred between the degradation agents, the traditional methodology was unable to predict correctly (by underestimating) the reduction factor for the combined effect of sulphuric acid 0.1 mol.L-1 and thermo-oxidation.

Keywords


Geosynthetics; Geotextiles; Durability; Thermo-oxidation; Resistance against liquids; Reduction factors; Interactions

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ingold TS. The geotextiles and geomembranes manual (1st ed.). Elsevier Advanced Technology, Oxford, UK, 1994.

Koerner RM. Designing with geosynthetics. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA, 1999.

Shukla SK, Yin J-H. Fundamentals of geosynthetics engineering. Taylor & Francis / Balkema, Leiden, Netherlands, 2006.

Crawford RJ. Plastics engineering (3rd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK, 1998.

Rollin A. Long term performance of geotextiles. In: Proceedings of the 57th Canadian geotechnical conference, 5th Joint CGS/IAH-CNC Conference 2004; session 4D: 15-20.

Maier C, Calafut T. Polypropylene – the definitive user`s guide and databook. Plastics Design Library, New York, NY, USA, 1998.

Feldman D. Polymer weathering: photo-oxidation. Journal of Polymers and the Environment 2002; 10(4): 163-173.

(https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021148205366)

Greenwood JH, Schroeder HF, Voskamp W. Durability of geosynthetics (2nd ed.). CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, 2016.

Carneiro JR, Almeida PJ, Lopes ML. Effect of antioxidants and UV stabilisers in the resistance of polypropylene geotextiles against oxidation: the case of Chimassorb 944. In: Proceedings of GeoAfrica 2017 – 3rd African Regional Conference on Geosynthetics 2017; 301-310.

Al-Malaika S. Antioxidants: an overview. In: Plastic additives – An A-Z reference. Pritchard G, Editor, Chapman & Hall, London, UK, 1998, 55-72.

Allen NS. Light and UV stabilisation of polymers. In: Plastic additives – An A-Z reference. Pritchard G, Editor, Chapman & Hall, London, UK, 1998, 428-441.

Carneiro JR. Durability of geosynthetics in environmental structures – the importance of chemical additives. PhD Thesis in Environmental Engineering, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal, 2009. LXVIII-534p. (in Portuguese)

Carneiro JR, Almeida PJ, Lopes ML. Accelerated weathering of polypropylene geotextiles. Science and Engineering of Composite Materials 2011; 18(4): 241-245.

(https://doi.org/10.1515/SECM.2011.047)

Carneiro JR, Almeida PJ, Lopes ML. Resistance of polyethylene geonets against thermo-oxidation. Materials Science Forum 2013; 730-732: 480-485.

(https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.730-732.480)

Carneiro JR, Almeida PJ, Lopes ML. Some synergisms in the laboratory degradation of a polypropylene geotextile. Construction and Building Materiais 2014; 73: 586-591.

(https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.10.001)

EN 14030. Geotextiles and geotextile-related products – Screening test method for determining the resistance to acid and alkaline liquids. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium, 2001.

EN 12447. Geotextiles and geotextile-related products – Screening test method for determining the resistance to hydrolysis in water. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium, 2001.

ASTM D6389. Standard practice for test to evaluate the chemical resistance of geotextiles to liquids. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, USA, 2017.

EN ISO 13438. Geotextiles and geotextile-related products – Screening test method for determining the resistance to oxidation. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium, 2004.

ASTM D5721. Standard practice for air-oven ageing of polyolefin geomembranes. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, USA, 2013.

Hsieh C, Wang J-B, Chiu YF. Weathering properties of geotextiles in ocean environments. Geosynthetics International 2006; 13(5) 210-217.

(https://doi.org/10.1680/gein.2006.13.5.210)

Carneiro JR, Lopes ML. Natural weathering of polypropylene geotextiles treated with different chemical stabilisers. Geosynthetics International 2017; 24(6): 544-553.

(https://doi.org/10.1680/jgein.17.00020)

Carneiro JR, Morais M, Lopes ML. Degradation of polypropylene geotextiles with different chemical stabilisations in marine environments. Construction and Building Materials 2018; 165: 877-886.

(https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.01.067)

ISO/TR 20432. Guidelines for the determination of the long-term strength of geosynthetics for soil reinforcement. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2007.

BS8006-1. Code of practice for strengthened/reinforced soils and other fills. British Standards Institution, London, UK, 2010.

Carneiro JR, Almeida PJ, Lopes ML. Laboratory evaluation of interactions in the degradation of a polypropylene geotextile in marine environments. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering 2018; article ID 9182658, 10p.

(https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/9182658)

Rosete A, Lopes PM, Pinho-Lopes M, et al. Tensile and hydraulic properties of geosynthetics after mechanical damage and abrasion laboratory tests. Geosynthetics International 2013; 20(5): 358-374.

(https://doi.org/10.1680/gein.13.00022)

Dias M, Carneiro JR, Lopes ML. Resistance of a nonwoven geotextile against mechanical damage and abrasion. Ciência e Tecnologia dos Materiais 2017; 29(1): 177-181.

(https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctmat.2016.07.007)

EN ISO 9864. Geosynthetics – Test method for the determination of mass per unit area of geotextiles and geotextile-related products. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium, 2005.

EN ISO 9863-1. Geosynthetics – Determination of thickness at specified pressures. Part 1: Single Layers. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium, 2005.

EN ISO 10319. Geosynthetics – Wide-width tensile test. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium, 2008.

EN ISO 9862. Geosynthetics – Sampling and preparation of test specimens. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium, 2005.

Montgomery DC, Runger GC. Applied statistics and probability for engineering (5th ed.). John Willy & Sons, Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2010.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.30564/jcr.v1i1.152

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright © 2019 Jose Ricardo Carneiro, Paulo Joaquim Almeida, Maria de Lurdes Lopes Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.