A Dynamic Steganography Method for Web Images with Average RunLength-Coding

Jin Liu (College of Computer Science and Technology, National Huaqiao University, Xiamen, 361000, China)
Yiwen Zhang (College of Computer Science and Technology, National Huaqiao University, Xiamen, 361000, China)


Web page has many redundancies, especially the dynamic html multimedia object. This paper proposes a novel method to employ the commonly used image elements on web pages. Due to the various types of image format and complexity of image contents and their position information, secret message bits could be coded to embed in these complex redundancies. Together with a specific covering code called average run-length-coding, the embedding efficiency could be reduced to a low level and the resulting capacity outperforms traditional content-based image steganography, which modifies the image data itself and causes a real image quality degradation. Our experiment result demonstrates that the proposed method has limited processing latency and high embedding capacity. What’s more, this method has a low algorithm complexity and less image quality distortion compared with existing steganography methods.


Steganography;Web image;Covering codes;Run length coding

Full Text:



[1] Hussain I, Zeng J, Tan S. A Survey on Deep Convolutional Neural Networks for Image Steganography and Steganalysis[J]. KSII Transactions on Internet & Information Systems, 2020, 14(3).

[2] Wu J, Chen B, Luo W, et al. Audio Steganography Based on Iterative Adversarial Attacks Against Convolutional Neural Networks[J]. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, 2020, 15: 2282- 2294.

[3] Abdolmohammadi M, Toroghi R M, Bastanfard A.Video Steganography Using 3D Convolutional Neural Networks[C]. Mediterranean Conference on Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence. Springer, Cham, 2019: 149-161.

[4] Hosam O, Ahmad M H. Hybrid design for cloud data security using combination of AES, ECC and LSB steganography[J]. International Journal of Computational Science and Engineering, 2019, 19(2): 153- 161.

[5] Wang Q, Bi S. Improved method for predicting the peak signal-to-noise ratio quality of decoded images in fractal image coding[J]. Journal of Electronic Imaging, 2017, 26(1): 013024.

[6] Duan X, Guo D, Liu N, et al. A New High Capacity Image Steganography Method Combined With Image Elliptic Curve Cryptography and Deep Neural Network[J]. IEEE Access, 2020, 8: 25777-25788.

[7] Bajaj I, Aggarwal R K. RSA Secured Web Based Steganography Employing HTML Space Codes And Compression Technique[C]. 2019 International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Control Systems (ICCS). IEEE, 2019: 865-868.

[8] Liao X, Yu Y, Li B, et al. A new payload partition strategy in color image steganography[J]. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, 2019, 30(3): 685-696.

[9] Nolkha A, Kumar S, Dhaka V S. Image Steganography Using LSB Substitution: A Comparative Analysis on Different Color Models[M]. Smart Systems and IoT: Innovations in Computing. Springer, Singapore, 2020: 711-718.

[10] Por L Y, Delina B. Information hiding: A new approach in text steganography[C]//WSEAS international conference. Proceedings. Mathematics and computers in science and engineering. World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society, 2008, 7.

[11] Kim C, Yang C N. Improving data hiding capacity based on hamming code[M]. Frontier and Innovation in Future Computing and Communications. Springer, Dordrecht, 2014: 697-706.

[12] Liu J, Tian H, Lu J, et al. Neighbor-index-division steganography based on QIM method for G. 723.1 speech streams[J]. Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing, 2016, 7(1): 139-147.

[13] Liu J, Tian H, Zhou K. Frame-bitrate-change based steganography for voice-over-IP[J]. Journal of Central South University, 2014, 21(12): 4544-4552.

[14] Tian H, Wu Y, Chang C C, et al. Steganalysis of adaptive multi-rate speech using statistical characteristics of pulse pairs[J]. Signal Processing, 2017, 134: 9-22.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.30564/jcsr.v3i1.2735


  • There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright © 2021 Author(s)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.