Etiological Spectrum with Diagnosis and Prognosis of Central Diabetes Insipidus needs Long Term Followup: A Single Centre Experience

Dipti Sarma (Department of Endocrinology Guwahati Medical College, Assam, India)
Manoj Gedam (Department of Endocrinology Guwahati Medical College, Assam, India)

Article ID: 2510

DOI: https://doi.org/10.30564/jer.v2i1.2510

Abstract


Introduction: Central Diabetes insipidus (CDI) is a rare disorder caused vasopressin deficiency characterized by the excretion of copious volumes of unconcentrated urine. Objective: To assess the etiological,clinical, biochemical and radiological spectrum of Central DI in our institute and long term follow up of these cases. Material and Methods:32 patients with Central DI admitted in Department of Endocrinology,Guwahati Medical College, Assam in the last 2.5 years were included.Detailed clinical assessment, biochemical evaluation and MRI (Magnetic Resonance imaging) brain were done in all the patients. Central DI without any identifiable cause was considered Idiopathic and those with structural lesion in hypothalamic pituitary region were considered organic. Result: Idiopathic CDI was present in 12(37.5%) patients and 20(62.5%) patients had organic CDI with acute onset of presentation.12(60%) patients with organic CDI present with neurological symptoms but 8(40%) patients had no neurological symptoms even with organic cause. Pituitary dysfunction was common in organic CDI as compared to idiopathic CDI. Paediatric patients commonly present with organic cause for CDI with low cortisol most common hormonal deficit. One patient of idiopathic CDI with normal stalk thickness at baseline presented with clinical and radiological features of  (Langerhans cell histiocytosis) on follow up. Conclusion: Organic CDI more likely to have acute onset of presentation than idiopathic CDI and even in absence of neurological features. Paediatric patients commonly have organic cause for CDI. We propose the paramount importance of long-term clinical follow-up and reassessment of endocrine function in patients with CDI for definitive diagnosis of autoimmune and inflammatory causes of idiopathic CDI and timely treatment of pituitary ypofunction.


Keywords


Central diabetes insipidus;Vasopressin;Idiopathic diabetes insipidus;Organic diabetes insipidus

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