SARS-CoV-2-the Unforeseen Peril of David Winning Against Goliath: the Immune Giant Collapsing Under Its Own Rampaging Cytokine Storm

Xanya Sofra (City University, London;New School for Social Research, New York)


We examined SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19) available treatments and prophylactic methods that included interventions associated with inhibiting the “type II transmembrane serine protease” (TMPRSS2) to limit the fusion between the Covid-19 Spike proteins and ACE2 receptors, or newly developed therapeutics like Remdesivir that interferes with the viral RNA replication. We explored the dilemma of ACE2 receptors that have a protective function against high blood pressure associated disorders, yet,they serve as the viral points of entry, elevating the probability of infection. Human tissues’ analysis reveals a higher ACE2 expression in adipose tissue, placing obesity-related conditions in the eye of the pandemic storm. It primarily exposes males due to the surge of ACE2 receptors in the testes along with other tissues. Males manifest a relatively higher positive ACE2 orrelations with certain immune cells in the lungs,thyroid, adrenals, liver and colon, while females evidence higher ACE2 correlations with immune cells in the heart. The remaining tissues’ ACE2/immunity expressions are equivalent in both sexes, indicating that despite its preference for males, the threat of Covid-19 can easily target females.Recent reports indicate that Covid-19 is empowered by hindering the critical process of viral recognition during the adaptive immune response leading to the “cytokine storm”, the aggravated immune response that indiscriminately perseveres, rampaging the host’s vital organs. Sedentary lifestyle, age-related hormonal imbalance, and adiposity induced inflammation predispose the body to the immune collapse following Covid-19 invasion, spotlighting the detrimental aftermath of metabolic dysfunction,and excess food consumption provoked by elevated cortisol and dysregulated appetite hormones. ACE 2 expression is suppressed in the skeletal muscle, rendering fitness and weight management an effective Covid-19 preventive intervention, along with social distancing, hygiene, and facial coverings. Physical activity, or exercise alternative methods have recently demonstrated statistically significant reductions of the inflammatory marker C-Reactive Protein (CRP), triglycerides, visceral fat, cortisol and the orexigenic hormone ghrelin, juxtaposed by optimal increases of IGF-1, skeletal muscle mass, Free T3, HDL, and the anorexic hormone leptin.


SARS-CoV-2;Covid-19;Cytokine Storm;ACE2;Skeletal Muscle Mass;Visceral Fat;Triglycerides;CRP;Cortisol;Remdesivir;Leptin;Ghrelin;Free T3;IGF-1;HDL;TMPRSS2;ADAM17;Angiotensin;nsp12

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