Late life vascular risk factors and their association with dementia and Alzheimer’s disease

Abeer Abdelzaher Ibrahim (Geriatrics and Gerontology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt)
Hussain Younes Haji (Family Medicine Department, Ahmadi hospital, Ahmadi, Kuwait)
Azza Mohamed Hassan (Community, Environmental and Occupational Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt)

Article ID: 4548


Background : Epidemiological studies have demonstrated associations between higher levels of vascular risk factors  in midlife  and  later development of  dementia, particularly Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, in elderly subjects with dementia, some studies have shown that these associations may decrease or even reverse. Therefore , our study aimed to find the association between late life cardiovascular risk factors and neurodegenerative dementia in general and AD in particular. Methods :It is a retrospective case control study using electronic medical records  that included   elderly patients  that were reviewed in  Ahmadi hospital  geriatric  clinic , Kuwait , from the period of 1/7/2019 to 1/2/2020. Two hundred and three (203) elderly  patients  with neurodegenerative  dementia  (study group) were recruited for this retrospective study and compared to two hundred and one (201) controls with normal cognition for the presence of vascular risk factors.Results :The study included 404 subjects .Age ranged from 60 to 107 years (mean age 78.79, ±  8.13 SD). AD was found to be the most prevalent  type  of  dementia in the study group  , as 49.3 % (100/203) of the demented patients were diagnosed with AD. No significant  statistical association was found between vascular risk factors  and  dementia (P>0.05) , except for obesity which showed negative association (P<0.001). Regarding AD , no statistical significance was found between AD and diabetes, hyperlipidemia, smoking nor atrial fibrillation. On the other hand, we  found obesity  and hypertension  more prevalent in the normal cognition group (negative association with P value <0.001,0.05 respectively).    Conclusion : The results of our study support an emerging concept  that, while elevated levels of vascular risk factors in midlife increase the risk of development of dementia and AD later in life, once dementia begins , these associations may be diminished or reversed in the elderly



Dementia;Elderly;Alzheimer’s disease;Vascular;Obesity

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