New Data on the Genesis and Evolution of the Primitive Magmas of Mount Cameroon: Contribution of Melt Inclusions

Legrand Joseph Tchop (Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, University of Yaoundé I, PO Box 812 Yaoundé, Cameroon;Geophysical and Volcanological Research Unit, Institute of Geological and Mining Research, PO Box 370 Buea, Cameroon)
Pauline Wokwenmendam Nguet (Geophysical and Volcanological Research Unit, Institute of Geological and Mining Research, PO Box 370 Buea, Cameroon)
Benjamin Ntieche (Higher Teacher Training College, University of Yaounde1 PO Box 812 Yaoundé, Cameroon)
Victor Metang (Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, University of Yaoundé I, PO Box 812 Yaoundé, Cameroon)
Jacques Dili Rake (Geophysical and Volcanological Research Unit, Institute of Geological and Mining Research, PO Box 370 Buea, Cameroon)
Merlin Isidore Teitchou (Geophysical and Volcanological Research Unit, Institute of Geological and Mining Research, PO Box 370 Buea, Cameroon)
Jacqueline Vander Auwera (Deparement de Geology, University of Liège B-4000 Sart-Tilman, Belgium)
Georges Emmanuel Ekodeck (Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, University of Yaoundé I, PO Box 812 Yaoundé, Cameroon)
Charles Nkoumbou (Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, University of Yaoundé I, PO Box 812 Yaoundé, Cameroon)


Mount Cameroon is a Plio-Quaternary volcanic massif, without a centralcrater, made up of more than 140 pyroclastic cones. It is one of theactive volcanoes of the Cameroon Volcanic Line. Mount Cameroon meltinclusions are found in microdroplets trapped in the early minerals (olivines)from the pyroclastic products. The analysis of these melt inclusions allowedus to find primitive liquids compared to lavas. Major elements study ofthe magmatic inclusions, trapped in the most magnesian olivines (Mg#84-86) of Mount Cameroon revealed “primitive” liquids of basanite and alkalibasalt type with variable composition compared to the much more uniformbasalts of the magmatic series of Mount Cameroon. The study of thesetrapped liquids shows that: (1) the original primitive lavas did not undergothe process of evolution by FC, but rather underwent fundamentally (orexclusively) the process of partial melting; (2) the emitted lavas, evolvedessentially by FC; (3) the variations in the trace element contents of theprimitive liquids directly reflect a variation in the rate of partial melting ofa homogeneous mantelic source. The very high La/Yb ratios of the MountCameroon melt inclusions (> 20) characterize a garnet lherzolite source.Spectra of the melt inclusions show a negative anomaly or depletion in K,Rb and Ba as those of HIMU. The “primitive” liquids and lavas of MountCameroon represent a co-genetic sequence formed by varying degrees ofpartial melting of a source considered as homogeneous.


Primitive magma;Partial melting;Fractional crystallization;Alkali basalt;Mount Cameroon;Active volcano

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