Mineralogical and Geochemical Assessment of Clay Properties of Edda, Afikpo Sub Basin Nigeria for Possible Use in the Ceramics Industry

J. C. Ike (Department of Energy and Petroleum Studies, Novena University, Ogume Delta State, Nigeria)
H. N. Ezeh (Department of Geology, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki Ebonyi State. Nigeria)
M. O. Eyankware (Department of Geology, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki Ebonyi State. Nigeria;Geo-Moses Consultancy Limited. Warri, Delta State, Nigeria)
A. I. Haruna (Department of Applied Geology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria)


Clay samples from selected part of Edda were analyzed to identify the clay mineral types present, their chemical and physical properties with a view to appraising their industrial suitability as ceramic materials. The mineralogical and geochemical analyses were done using the principles of X-Ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence respectively. A total of seven clay samples were used for the study, other tests such as plasticity, bulk density, shrinkage, loss on ignition (LOI) and water absorption capacity was carried out to determine the amount of water absorbed under specified conditions. The basic industrial properties assessment showed that more than 70% of the clays are fine-grained. The clays exhibited low to moderate plasticity, moderate shrinkage and bulk density, low to moderate values of both loss on ignition and water absorption capacity. The clays are buff to yellowish in colour. The results of x-ray fluorescence revealed that the mean concentration of major oxide in the clays is shown as follows: SiO2 (62.78%), Al2O3 (20.25%), total Fe (6.09%), CaO (0.56%), MgO (3.21%),Na2O (0.47%), K2O, (1.44%) and TiO2 (0.52%).The samples have high silica content, low alumina and low oxide content. The results of x-ray diffraction revealed that kaolinite is the dominant clay mineral with illite and montmorillonite occurring in subordinate amounts, while quartz and feldspar are the non-clay components present. The characteristics of the clays for each parameter were compared with industrial standards.These properties are appropriate for the Afikpo clays to be useful in the manufacturing of ceramics. However, since the silica content of the clays is high further beneficiation is recommended.


X-ray;Mineral;Liquid limit;Plastic limit;Industrial standard;Atterberg limit

Full Text:



[1] Agulajobi, S. A., Omoijuango I. S. (2012). Investigating the Strength and Porosity Characteristics of Some Field Clays in Edo and Delta States.Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. 4;9-15.

[2] Arua, T., Onyeoku, O. K. (1978). Clays and Afikpo Pottery in Southern Nigerian Field. pp.27-28.

[3] Igwe, I. O., Ezeamaku, I. U., (2010). The Use of some Local Clays in the Alkyd Paint Formulations.Malaysian Polymer Journal. (5)1, 81-94.

[4] Akhirevbulu, O. E., Amadasun, C. V. O., Ogunbajo,M. I., Ujuanbi, O. (2010). The Geology and Mineral Occurrences around Kutigi Central Bida Basin, Nigeria. Ethiopian Journal of Environment Studies and Management. 3(3), 49-56.

[5] Ford, S. O. (1978). The Economic Mineral Resources of the Benue Trough-a critical review, in Geology of Nigeria, C. A. Kogbe (ed). Eliz. Pub. Co. pp. 473-483.

[6] Onyekuru, S. O., Iwuoha, P.O., Iwuagwu, C.J., Nwozoe, K.K. (2018). Mineralogical and geochemical properties of Clay Deposits in Parts of Southeastern Nigeria. International Journal of Physical Sciences.13(14), 217-229.

[7] Igwe, I.O. and Ezeamaku, L.U. (2010) The Use of Local Clays in Alkyd Paint Formulation.Malaysian Polymer Journal, 5, 81-94.

[8] Onochie, N. E., Inya, B.T., Okuego, C. O. (2013).Economic Potentials of Clay Deposit in Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic Uwana, Afikpo North Ebonyi State. International Journal of Innovative Research and Development. (2) 11, 461-463.

[9] Reijers, T.J.A., Petters, S.W., Nwajide, C.S. (1997).The Niger Delta Basin. In: Hsu, K.J. (Ed.),African Basins, Sedimentary Basins of the World. Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, pp.145-172.

[10] Okoro, A.U., Igwe, E.O. (2014). Lithofacies and depositional environment of the Amasiri andstone,southern Benue Trough, Nigeria. J. Afr. Earth Sci.100, 179-190.

[11] Nwajide, C.S. (2013). Geology of Nigeria’s Sedimentary Basins. CSS Bookshops, Lagos, pp.565.

[12] Ezeh, H. N., Anike, O. L. (2009). The preliminary assessment of the pollution status of streams and artificial lakes created by mining district of Enyigba, Southeastern, Nigeria and their consequences.Global Journal of Environmental Sciences. 8(1), 41-44.

[13] Effam, S.C., Edene, E. N., Eyankware, M. O. (2014).Analysis of foraminifera in certain part of Afikpo and its environs, Ebonyi state southeastern Nigeria.International Journal of Innovation and Scientific Research 12 (2), 356-364.

[14] Nwajide, C.S. (1990). Eocene tidal sedimentation in the Anambra Basin, Southern Nigeria.Sedimentary Geology, 25, 189-207.

[15] Okoro, A.U., Okogbue C.O, Nwajide, C.S., Onuigbo,E.N., (2012). Provenance and Paleogeography of the Nkporo Formation (Late Campanian – Early Maastrichtian) in the Afikpo Sub-Basin, Southeastern Nigeria European Journal of Scientific Research ISSN 1450-216X Vol. 88 No 3, pp.346-364.

[16] American Society for Testing Materials (1964).Procedures for testing soils. American Society for Testing Materials, Philadelphia. 418-442. American Society for Testing and Materials (1989). Annual Book. ASTM Standards, Philadelphia, part,19.

[17] Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards (1980). Selected powder diffraction data for minerals, Edition.

[18] Keningan, G. C. (1971). A sample preparation device for x-ray fluorescence. Journal of Physics Earth Sciences Instrument. (5), 544-545.

[19] British Standard Methods of Test for Soil for Civil Engineering Purposes, BS 1377 (1990). part 1-9,published by the British Standards Institution, 8-200.

[20] Gitte L. G., Benjaminn N. N., Lars B. I. (2011).Comparison of liquid limit of highly plastic clay by means of casagrande and fall cone apparatus. Geotechnical Conference, 1-4.

[21] Vardanega, P. J., Haigh, S. K. (2014). The undrained strength – liquidity index relationship.Technical Report.

[22] Haigh, S. K., Vardanega, P. J., Bolton, M. D. (2013).Ge ´otechnique 63(6); 435-440 http://dx.doi.org/10.1680/geot.11.P.12.

[23] Obrike, S. E., Osadebe, C. C., Onyeobi, T. U.S. (2007). Mineralogical, Geochemical, Physical and Industrial Characteristics of Shale from Okada area, Southwestern Nigeria. Journal of Mining and Geology, 43(2), 109-116.

[24] Okagbue, C. O. (1989). Geotechnical and Environmental Problems of the Niger Delta. Bulletin of the International Association of Engineering Geologist.27, 119-126.

[25] Idakwo S. O., Barnabas G. Y., Alege, S. T.,Alege, K. E. (2013). Paleoclimate Reconstruction during Mamu Formations (Cretaceous). Based on Clay Mineral Distribution in Northern Anambra Basin, Nigeria. International Journal of Science and Technology. (2)12, 879-882.

[26] Hassan, S. B. (2001).. Effects of Silicon Carbide on Some Refractory Prpeties of Kankara Clay Proc. Of the Nigerian Metallurgical Society, the 18th Annual Conference. pp. 46-52.

[27] Alege, T. S., Idakwo, S. O., Alege, E.K., Gideon Y.B. (2014). Geology, Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Clay Occurrences within the Northern Anambra Basin, Nigeria. British Journal of Applied Science and Technology. 4(5), 841-852.

[28] Aremu, D. A., Aremu, J. O., Ibrahim, U. H. (2013).Analysis of Mubi Clay Deposit as a Furnace Lining. International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research. (2)12, 182-186.

[29] Akwilapo, L. D., Wiik, K. Ceramic Properties of Pugu Kaolin Clays. Part 1. Porosity and Modulus of Rupture. Bulletin of Chemical Society, Ethiopia.17(2), 147-154.

[30] Olusola, J. O., Suraj, A. A., Adewole, T. N., Abiola, A. O. (2011). Sedimentological and Geochemical Studies of Maastrichtian Clays in Bida Basin, Nigeria. Implication for Resource Potential.Centrepoint Journal. 17(2), 71-88.

[31] Fakolujo, O. S., Olokode, O. S., Aiyedun, P. O.,Oyeleke, Y. T., Anyanwu, B. U., Lee, W. E.(2012).Studies on the Five (5) selected clays in Abeokuta,Nigeria. The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology. (13)1, 83-90.

[32] Hashimu H., Seungyong E. P., Beyung-H. C.,Yiong-T. A., Lee, J. (2014). Influence of Firing Temperature on Physical Properties of Same Clay and Pugu Kaolin. International Journal of Materials Science and Application. 3(5), 143-146.

[33] Akinola, O. O.Obas, i, R. A. (2014). Compositional Characteristics and Industrial Potential of the Lateritic Clay Deposit in Ara-Ijero Ekiti Areas,Southwestern Nigeria. Journal of Scientific and Technology Research. 3(8), 304-311.

[34] Obrike, S. E., Onyeobi, T. U. S., Anudu, G. K.,Osadebe, C. C. (2012). Compositional Characteristics and Industrial Assessment of the Asu River Group Shale in Mpu are, Southeastern Nigeria.Journal of Mining and Geology. 48(2), 117-126.

[35] Murray, H. H. (2007). Applied Clay Mineralogy. Developments in Clay Science. 2, 1-189.

[36] Nwosu, D. C., Ejikeme, P. C. N., Ejikeme, E.M. (2013). Physico-chemical Characteization of ‘NGWO’ White Clay for Industrial Use. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Engineering. (4)3;11-14.

[37] Fakolujo, O.S., Olokode, O.S., Aiyedun, P.O., Oyeleke, Y. T., Anyanwu, B. U., Lee, W. E. (2012).Studies on the Five (5) selected clays in Abeokuta, Nigeria. The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology.(13) 1, 83-90.

[38] Onyeobi, T. U. S., Imeokparia, E. G.., Ilegieuno, O. A., Egbuniwe, I. G. (2013). Compositional,Geotechnical and Industrial Characteristics of Some Clay Bodies in Southern Nigeria.Journal of Geography and Geology. (5)2; 73-84.

[39] Akinola, O. O., Oluwatoyin, O., Ademilua, O. L.,Oladimeji, I. (2014). Composition, Features, and Functional Industrial Applications of the Lateritic Clay Deposit in Oye-Ekiti and Environs, Southwest Nigeria. International Journal of Science and Technology. 2(9),6-12.

[40] Aramide, F. O., Alaneme, K. K., Borode, J. O.(2014). Characterization of some clay deposits in southwestern Nigeria. Leornado Electronic Journal of Practices and Technologies. 25, 46-57.

[41] Okunlola,O.A. and Akinola,O.A 2012 Physicochemical characteristic and industrial potentials of in situ clay occurrence around Ijero Ekiti area Southwestern Nigeria. Journal of Science Research Vol.11(1): 99-100.

[42] Okunlola, O. A. (2008). Compositional Characteristics and Functional Industrial Application of Itakpe Clay Occurrence, Central Nigeria. European Journal of Scientific Research, 9(3): pp. 433-461.

[43] Irabor, P. S. (2002). Physical chemical, Investigation of some Nigeria Kaolinite Clay for use in the Ceramic and Allied Industries. Nigerian Journal of Engineering Research and Development. (1)1,54-59.

[44] Singer, F., Sonja, S. S. (1971). Industrial Ceramics.Chapman and Hall. London. pp. 18-56.

[45] National Fertilizer Company of Nigeria (NAFCON).(1985).Tender Document for the Supply of Kaolin from Nigeria Sources. 65p.

[46] Talabi, A. O., Ademilua, O. L., Oluwatoyin, O., Akinola, O. (2012). Compositional Features and Industrial Application of Ikerre Kaolinite Southwest,Nigeria. Research Journal in Engineering and Applied Sciences. 1(5), 327-333.

[47] Emofurieta, W.O., Ogudinmu, T. O., Imeokparia, E.G. (1994). Mineralogical Geochemical, and Economic Appraisal of Some Clay and Shale Deposits in southwestern and northeastern Nigeria.Journal of Mining and Geology. 28, 211-220.

[48] Emofurieta, W. O., Salami, A. O. (1986). A Comparative Study of two Kaolin Deposits in Southwest Nigeria. Journal of Mining and Geology. 24, 15-20.

[49] Huber, J. M. (1985). Kaolin Clays. Huber Corporation (Clay Division) Georgia, U. S. A.Alabo, B.H., Odigi, M .I. (1989). Geotechnical Properties as Aid to the Assessment and Identification of Industrial Clays: A Preliminary Study of Eastern Niger Delta Clay. Journal of Mining and Geology.25(1&2), 25-31.

[50] Alabo, B. H., Odigi, M .I. (1989). Geotechnical Properties as Aid to the Assessment and Identification of Industrial Clays: A Preliminary Study of Eastern Niger Delta Clay. Journal of Mining and Geology. 25(1-2), 25-31

DOI: https://doi.org/10.30564/jgr.v3i2.2964


  • There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright © 2021 J. C. Ike, H. N. Ezeh, M. O. Eyankware, A. I. Haruna

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.