Mineralogical and Geochemiccal Assessment of Edda Clays for Possible Use in the Ceramics Industry,Afikpo Sub-Basin,Nigeria

J. C. Ike (Department of Energy and Petroleum Studies, Novena University, Ogume Delta State, Nigeria.)
H. N. Ezeh (Department of Geology, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki Ebonyi State. Nigeria.)
M. O. Eyankware (Department of Geology, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki Ebonyi State. Nigeria;Geo-Moses Consultancy Limited. Warri, Delta State, Nigeria)
A. I. Haruna (Department of Applied Geology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria)


 Clay samples from selected part of Edda were analyzed to identify the clay mineral types present, their chemical and physical properties with a view to appraising their industrial suitability as ceramic materials. The mineralogical and geochemical analyses were done using the principles of X-Ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence respectively. A total of seven clay samples were used for the study, other tests such as plasticity, bulk density, shrinkage, loss on ignition (LOI) and water absorption capacity was carried out to determine the amount of water absorbed under specified conditions. The basic industrial properties assessment showed that more than 70% of the clays are fine-grained. The clays exhibited low to moderate plasticity, moderate shrinkage and bulk density, low to moderate values of both loss on ignition and water absorption capacity. The clays are buff to yellowish in colour. The results of x-ray fluorescence revealed that the mean concentration of major oxide in the clays is shown as follows: SiO2 (62.78%), Al2O3 (20.25%), total Fe (6.09%), CaO (0.56%), MgO (3.21%), Na2O (0.47%), K2O, (1.44%) and TiO2 (0.52%). The samples have high silica content, low alumina and low oxide content. The results of x-ray diffraction revealed that kaolinite is the dominant clay mineral with illite and montmorillonite occurring in subordinate amounts, while quartz and feldspar are the non-clay components present. The characteristics of the clays for each parameter were compared with industrial standards. These properties are appropriate for the Afikpo clays to be useful in the manufacturing of ceramics. However, since the silica content of the clays is high further beneficiation is recommended.


X-ray, Mineral, Liquid limit, Plastic limit, Industrial standard , Atterberg limit

Full Text:



[1]Alege, T. S., Idakwo, S. O., Alege, E.K., Gideon Y.B. (2014). Geology, Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Clay Occurences within the Northern Anambra Basin, Nigeria. British Journal of Applied Science and Technology. 4(5), 841-852.

[2]Agulajobi, S. A.,Omoijuango I. S. (2012). Investigating the Strength and Porosity Characteristics of Some Field Clays in Edo and Delta States. Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. 4; 9-15.

[3]Akinola, O. O.Obas, i, R. A. (2014). Compositional Characteristics and Industrial Potential of the Lateritic Clay Deposit in Ara-Ijero Ekiti Areas, Southwestern Nigeria. Journal of Scientific and Technology Research. 3(8), 304-311.

[4]Akinola, O. O., Oluwatoyin, O., Ademilua, O. L., Oladimeji, I. (2014). Composition, Features, and Functional Industrial Applications of the Lateritic Clay Deposit in Oye-Ekiti and Environs, Southwest Nigeria. International Journal of Science and Technology. 2(9),6-12.

[5]Akhirevbulu, O. E., Amadasun, C. V. O., Ogunbajo, M. I., Ujuanbi, O. (2010). The Geology and Mineral Occurrences around Kutigi Central Bida Basin, Nigeria. Ethiopian Journal of Environment Studies and Management. 3(3), 49-56.

[6]Akwilapo, L. D., Wiik, K. Ceramic Properties of Pugu Kaolin Clays. Part 1. Porosity and Modulus of Rupture. Bulletin of Chemical Society, Ethiopia. 17(2), 147-154.

[7]Alabo, B. H., Odigi, M .I. (1989). Geotechnical Properties as Aid to the Assessment and Identification of Industrial Clays: A Preliminary Study of Eastern Niger Delta Clay. Journal of Mining and Geology. 25(1&2), 25-31.

[8]American Society for Testing Materials (1964). Procedures for testing soils. American Society for Testing Materials, Philadelphia. 418-442. American Society for Testing and Materials (1989). Annual Book. ASTM Standards.Philadelphia, part, 19.

[9]Aramide, F. O., Alaneme, K. K., Borode, J. O. (2014). Characterization of some clay deposits in southwestern Nigeria. Leornado Electronic Journal of Practices and Technologies. 25, 46-57.

[10]Arua, T., Onyeoku, O. K. (1978). Clays and Afikpo Pottery in Southern Nigerian Field. pp.27-28.

[11]Aremu, D. A., Aremu, J. O., Ibrahim, U. H. (2013). Analysis of Mubi Clay Deposit as a Furnace Lining. International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research. (2)12, 182-186.

[12]Effam, S.C., Edene, E. N., Eyankware, M. O. (2014). Analysis of foraminifera in certain part of Afikpo and its environs, Ebonyi state southeastern Nigeria. International Journal of Innovation and Scientific Research 12 (2), 356-364

[13]Emofurieta, W. O., Salami, A. O. (1986). A Comparative Study of two Kaolin Deposits in Southwest Nigeria. Journal of Mining and Geology. 24, 15-20.

[14]Emofurieta, W.O., Ogudinmu, T. O., Imeokparia, E. G. (1994). Mineralogical Geochemical, and Economic Appraisal of Some Clay and Shale Deposits in southwestern and northeastern Nigeria. Journal of Mining and Geology. 28, 211-220.

[15]Ezeh, H. N., Anike, O. L. (2009). The preliminary assessment of the pollution status of streams and artificial lakes created by mining district of Enyigba, Southeastern, Nigeria and their consequences. Global Journal of Environmental Sciences. 8(1), 41-44.

[16]Fakolujo, O. S., Olokode, O. S., Aiyedun, P. O., Oyeleke, Y. T., Anyanwu, B. U., Lee, W. E. (2012). Studies on the Five (5) selected clays in Abeokuta, Nigeria. The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology. (13)1, 83-90.

[17]Ford, S. O. (1978). The Economic Mineral Resources of the Benue Trough-a critical review, in Geology of Nigeria, C. A. Kogbe (ed). Eliz. Pub. Co. pp. 473-483.

[18]Gary, S. K. (2008). Physical and Engineering Geology; 2nd Edition.

[19]Hassan, S. B. (2001).. Effects of Silicon Carbide on Some Refractory Prpeties of Kankara Clay Proc. of the Nigerian Metallurgical Society, the 18th Annual Conference. pp. 46-52.

[20]Hashimu H., Seungyong E. P., Beyung-H. C.,Yiong-T. A., Lee, J. (2014). Influence of Firing Temperature on Physical Properties of Same Clay and Pugu Kaolin. International Journal of Materials Science and Application. 3(5), 143-146.

[21]Huber, J. M. (1985). Kaolin Clays. Huber Corporation (Clay Division) Georgia, U. S. A.

[22]Idakwo S. O., Barnabas G. Y., Alege, S. T., Alege, K. E. (2013). Paleoclimate Reconstruction during Mamu Formations (Cretaceous). Based on Clay Mineral Distribution in Northern Anambra Basin, Nigeria. International Journal of Science and Technology. (2)12, 879-882.

[23]Igwe, I. O., Ezeamaku, I. U., (2010). The Use of some Local Clays in the Alkyd Paint Formulations. Malaysian Polymer Journal. (5)1, 81-94.

[24]Irabor, P. S. (2002). Physical chemical, Investigation of some Nigeria Kaolinite Clay for use in the Ceramic and Allied Industries. Nigerian Journal of Engineering Research and Development. (1)1, 54-59.

[25]Jock, A. A., Ayeni, L. S., Jongs, L. S., Kangpe, N. S. (2013). Development of Refractory Bricks from Higerian Clay Deposit. International Journal of Materials, Methods, and Terminologies. 1(10), 189-198.

[26]Joint Committee on Powder Difffraction Standards (1980). Selected powder diffraction data for minerals, Edition. (Ed. L. G. Berry). Pub. Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards, Philadelphia. 813p.

[27]Keningan, G. C. (1971). A sample preparation device for x-ray fluorescence. Journal of Physics Earth Sciences Instrument. (5), 544-545.

[28]Mark, U., Onyemaobi, O. (2009). Assessment of the Industrial Potentials of some Nigerian Kaolinitic Clay Deposits. International Research Journal in Engineering Science and Technology. 6(1), 77-81.

[29]Moore, D. M., Reynolds, R. C. (1997). X-Ray Diffraction and the Identification and Analysis of Clay Minerals. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

[30]Murray, H. H. (2007). Applied Clay Mineralogy. Developments in Clay Science. 2, 1-189.

[31]National Fertilizer Company of Nigeria (NAFCON). (1985).Tender Document for the Supply of Kaolin from Nigeria Sources. 65p.

[32]Nwajide, C.S. (1990). Eocene tidal sedimentation in the Anambra Basin, Southern Nigeria. Sedimentary Geology, 25, 189-207.

[33]Nwajide, C.S. (2013). Geology of Nigeria's Sedimentary Basins. CSS Bookshops, Lagos, pp.565

[34]Nwosu, D. C., Ejikeme, P. C. N., Ejikeme, E. M. (2013). Physico-chemical Characteization of ‘NGWO’ White Clay for Industrial Use. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Engineering. (4)3;11-14

[35]Onyedika, G. O., Nwosu, G. U. (2008). Lead, zinc and cadmium in root crops from mineralized galena-sphalerite mining areas, and environment. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 7 (3), 418-420.

[36]Okoro, A.U., Igwe, E.O. (2014). Lithofacies and depositional environment of the Amasiri sandstone, southern Benue Trough, Nigeria. J. Afr. Earth Sci. 100, 179-190.

[37]Oboh-Ikueobe, F. E., Obi, G. C., Jaramiko, C. A. (2005). Lithofacies, Palynofacies, and Sequence Stratigraphy of Palaeogene Strata in Southeastern Nigeria. Journal of African Earth Sciences. 41, 79-101.

[38]Obrike, S. E., Osadebe, C. C., Onyeobi, T. U. S. (2007). Mineralogical, Geochemical, Physical and Industrial Characteristics of Shale from Okada area, Southwestern Nigeria. Journal of Mining and Geology, 43(2), 109-116.

[39]Obrike, S. E., Onyeobi, T. U. S., Anudu, G. K., Osadebe, C. C. (2012). Compositional Characteristics and Industrial Assessment of the Asu River Group Shale in Mpu are, Southeastern Nigeria. Journal of Mining and Geology. 48(2), 117-126.

[40]Okagbue, C. O. (1989). Geotechnical and Environmental Problems of the Niger Delta. Bulletin of the International Association of Engineering Geologist. 27, 119-126.

[41]Okogbue, C. O., Aghamelu, O. P. (2010). Comparison of the Geotechnical Properties of Crushed Shales from Southeastern Nigeria. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment. 69(4), 587-597.

[42]Okoro, A.U., Okogbue C.O, Nwajide, C.S., Onuigbo, E.N., (2012). Provenance and Paleogeography of the Nkporo Formation (Late Campanian – Early Maastrichtian) in the Afikpo Sub-Basin, Southeastern Nigeria European Journal of Scientific Research ISSN 1450-216X Vol. 88 No 3, pp.346-364.

[43]Okunlola, O. A. (2008). Compositional Characteristics and Functional Industrial Application of Itakpe Clay Occurrence, Central Nigeria. European Journal of Scientific Research, 9(3): pp. 433-461.

[44]Okunlola, O. A., Akinola, O. O. (2011). Physio-Chemical Characteristics and Industrial Potentials of In-Situ Clay Occurrences around Ijero-Ekiti Southwest Nigeria. Journal of Science Research. University of Ibadan. vol. 10. no. 3.

[45]OlaOlorun, O. A., Akinola, O. O. (2011). Physical and Geochemical Characteristics of Kaolinitic Clay Deposit at Ilukuno-Ekiti, Southwestern Nigeria. International Journal of Architecture and Built Environment. 3(1), 92-98.

[46]Olusola, J. O., Suraj, A. A., Adewole, T. N., Abiola, A. O. (2011). Sedimentological and Geochemical Studies of Maastrichtian Clays in Bida Basin, Nigeria. Implication for Resource Potential. Centrepoint Journal. 17(2), 71-88.

[47]Onochie, N. E., Inya, B. T., Okuego, C. O. (2013). Economic Potentials of Clay Deposit in Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic Uwana, Afikpo North Ebonyi State. International Journal of Innovative Research and Development. (2)11, 461-463.

[48]Onyekuru, S. O., Iwuoha, P.O., Iwuagwu, C.J., Nwozoe, K.K. (2018). Mineralogical and geochemical properties of Clay Deposits in Parts of Southeastern Nigeria. International Journal of Physical Sciences. 13(14), 217-229.

[49]Onyeobi, T. U. S., Imeokparia, E. G.., Ilegieuno, O. A., Egbuniwe, I. G. (2013). Compositional, Geotechnical and Industrial Characteristics of Some Clay Bodies in Southern Nigeria. Journal of Geography and Geology. (5)2; 73-84.

[50]Reijers, T.J.A., Petters, S.W., Nwajide, C.S. (1997). The Niger Delta Basin. In: Hsu, K.J. (Ed.), African Basins, Sedimentary Basins of the World. Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, pp. 145–172

[51]Singer, F., Sonja, S. S. (1971). Industrial Ceramics. Chapman and Hall. London. pp. 18-56.

[52]Talabi, A. O., Ademilua, O. L., Oluwatoyin, O., Akinola, O. (2012). Compositional Features and Industrial Application of Ikerre Kaolinite Southwest, Nigeria. Research Journal in Engineering and Applied Sciences. 1(5), 327-333.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.30564/jgr.v3i2.2964


  • There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright © 2021 J. C. Ike, H. N. Ezeh, M. O. Eyankware, A. I. Haruna Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.