A Short Note on Linkage of Climatic Records between Terai and Mid-mountain of Central Nepal

Binod Dawadi (Central Department of Hydrology and Meteorology Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal;Kathmandu Center for Research and Education, Chinese Academy of Sciences-Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal)
Ram Hari Acharya (Central Department of Hydrology and Meteorology Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal)
Dipendra Lamichhane (Central Department of Hydrology and Meteorology Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal)
Saroj Pudasainee (Central Department of Hydrology and Meteorology Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal)
Ishwar Kumar Shrestha (Department of Statistics, Amrit Campus, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal)

Article ID: 2323

DOI: https://doi.org/10.30564/jgr.v3i4.2323


The steep North to South (N-S) gradient and complex topography markssignificant variations in the spatial and temporal patterns of climatic variation surrounding within a few distances in the Nepal Himalayas. Hence,to validate climatic linkages between the stations under two distinct topographic conditions, the study examines the observational climatic data from 106m a.s.l. and 1801m a.s.l., as a representative station from a plain and hilly area. Different statistical tools including Pearson correlation analysis and a best-fit regression model were applied to analyze climate data. The analysis of 13129 daily average temperature records and 13147 daily total precipitation records showed that the variation in their sum and average of daily, five days, ten days, and monthly values between the stations in the different elevations marked significantly.Despite these variations, temperature records are measured to be consistent in different altitudes and strongly correlated. The precipitation data showed a comparatively weaker correlation. The coefficients (0.85-1.6) with R2 >0.50 in the regression models for the lower elevation and higher elevation station in the mid-mountain region except for the monsoon season. It indicated a similar fluctuation of temperature between these two stations in the respective area. The strong degree of association and the change of climatic parameters in different range and elevations indicate the possibilities of using climatic data from Terai to represent the Mid-mountain region of central Nepal.


Climatic linkage;Regression model;Paleoclimatic calibration;Terai;Mid-mountain

Full Text:



[1] Karki R, Talchabhadel R, Aalto J, Baidya S K. New climatic classification of Nepal[J]. Theoretical and applied climatology, 2016, 125(3-4): 799-808.

[2] Dawadi B, Liang E, Tian L, Devkota L P, Yao T.Elsevier. Pre-monsoon precipitation signal in tree rings of timberline Betula utilis in the central Himalayas[J]. Quaternary International, 2013, 283: 72-77.

[3] Lawrimore J H, Menne M J, Gleason B E, Williams C N, Wuertz D B, Vose R S, Rennie J. Wiley Online Library. An overview of the Global Historical Climatology Network monthly mean temperature data set, version 3[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research:Atmospheres, 2011, 116(D19).

[4] Salerno F, Guyennon N, Thakuri S, Viviano G, Romano E, Vuillermoz E, Cristofanelli P, Stocchi P,Agrillo G, Ma Y. Weak precipitation, warm winters and springs impact glaciers of south slopes of Mt.Everest (central Himalaya) in the last 2 decades 1994-2013).[J]. Cryosphere, 2015, 9(3).

[5] Beniston M, Diaz H F, Bradley R S. Springer. Climatic change at high elevation sites: an overview[J].Climatic Change, 1997, 36(3-4): 233-251.

[6] Thakuri S, Dahal S, Shrestha D, Guyennon N, Romano E, Colombo N, Salerno F. Elsevier. Elevation-dependent warming of maximum air temperature in Nepal during 1976-2015[J]. Atmospheric Research,2019, 228: 261-269.

[7] Pepin N, Bradley R S, Diaz H F, Baraër M, Caceres E B, Forsythe N, Fowler H, Greenwood G, Hashmi M Z, Liu X D. Elevation-dependent warming in mountain regions of the world[J]. Nature Climate Change, 2015, 5(5): 424-430.

[8] Rangwala I, Miller J R. Springer. Climate change in mountains: a review of elevation-dependent warming and its possible causes[J]. Climatic change, 2012,114(3-4): 527-547.

[9] Li B, Chen Y, Shi X. IOP Publishing, 2020. Does elevation dependent warming exist in high mountain Asia?[J]. Environmental Research Letters, 2020,15(2): 024012.

[10] Basnet K. Temperature variation in Nepal[J]. Himalayan Review, 1989: 25-34.

[11] Kattel D B, Yao T, Yang K, Tian L, Yang G, Joswiak D. Temperature lapse rate in complex mountain terrain on the southern slope of the central Himalayas[J]. Theoretical and applied climatology, 2013,113(3-4): 671-682.

[12] Shrestha A B, Wake C P, Mayewski P A, Dibb J E.Maximum temperature trends in the Himalaya and its vicinity: an analysis based on temperature records from Nepal for the period 1971-94[J]. Journal of climate, 1999, 12(9): 2775-2786.

[13] Kattel D B, Yao T. Recent temperature trends at mountain stations on the southern slope of the central Himalayas[J]. Journal of earth system science, 2013,122(1): 215-227.

[14] Dhital Y P, Tang Q, Shi J. Springer, 2013. Hydroclimatological changes in the Bagmati River basin,Nepal[J]. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 2013,23(4): 612-626.

[15] Barry R G. Mountain weather and climate, - Cambridge University Press[J]. New York, 2008.

[16] Dhar O N, Nandargi S. Areas of heavy precipitation in the Nepalese Himalayas[J]. Weather, 2005, 60(12):354-356.

[17] Ichiyanagi K, Yamanaka M D, Muraji Y, Vaidya B K.Precipitation in Nepal between 1987 and 1996[J]. International Journal of Climatology: A Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 2007, 27(13): 1753-1762.

[18] Nayava J L. Rainfall in Nepal[J]. Himalayan Review,1980, 12: 1-18.

[19] Putkonen J K. Taylor & Francis, 2004. Continuous snow and rain data at 500 to 4400 m altitude near Annapurna, Nepal, 1999-2001[J]. Arctic, Antarctic,and Alpine Research, 2004, 36(2): 244-248.

[20] Hamal K, Sharma S, Khadka N, Baniya B, Ali M,Shrestha M S, Xu T, Shrestha D, Dawadi B. Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2020. Evaluation of MERRA-2 Precipitation Products Using Gauge Observation in Nepal[J]. Hydrology, 2020,7(3): 40.

[21] Shrestha S, Yao T, Adhikari T R. Elsevier, 2019.Analysis of rainfall trends of two complex mountain river basins on the southern slopes of the Central Himalayas[J]. Atmospheric Research, 2019, 215: 99-115.

[22] Dhar O N, Nandargi S. An appraisal of precipitation distribution around the Everest and Kanchenjunga peaks in the Himalayas[J]. Weather, 2000, 55(7):223-234.

[23] Fujita K, Thompson L G, Ageta Y, Yasunari T, Kajikawa Y, Sakai A, Takeuchi N. Wiley Online Library,2006. Thirty-year history of glacier melting in the Nepal Himalayas[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 2006, 111(D3).

[24] Kansakar S R, Hannah D M, Gerrard J, Rees G. Spatial pattern in the precipitation regime of Nepal[J].International Journal of Climatology: A Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 2004, 24(13):1645-1659.

[25] Karki R, Schickhoff U, Scholten T, Böhner J. Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2017. Rising precipitation extremes across Nepal[J]. Climate,2017, 5(1): 4.

[26] Shrestha D, Singh P, Nakamura K. Wiley Online Library, 2012. Spatiotemporal variation of rainfall over the central Himalayan region revealed by TRMM Precipitation Radar[J]. Journal of geophysical research: atmospheres, 2012, 117(D22).

[27] Sharma S, Khadka N, Hamal K, Shrestha D, Talchabhadel R, Chen Y. Wiley Online Library, 2020. How accurately can satellite products (TMPA and IMERG)detect precipitation patterns, extremities, and drought across the Nepalese Himalaya?[J]. Earth and Space Science, 2020, 7(8): e2020EA001315.

[28] Liang E, Liu B, Zhu L, Yin Z-Y. A short note on linkage of climatic records between a river valley and the upper timberline in the Sygera Mountains, southeastern Tibetan Plateau[J]. Global and Planetary Change,2011, 77(1-2): 97-102.

[29] Dawadi B. Climatic records and linkage along an altitudinal gradient in the southern slope of NepalHimalaya[J]. Journal of Nepal Geological Society,2017, 53: 47-56.

[30] Shrestha A B, Wake C P, Dibb J E, Mayewski P A.Wiley Online Library. Precipitation fluctuations in the Nepal Himalaya and its vicinity and relationship with some large scale climatological parameters[J].International Journal of Climatology: A Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 2000, 20(3): 317-327.


  • There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright © 2020 Binod Dawadi, Ram Hari Acharya, Dipendra Lamichhane, Saroj Pudasainee, Ishwar Kumar Shrestha

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.