Tick-borne Diseases, Transmission, Host Immune Responses, Diagnosis and Control

Nidhi Yadav (Department of Zoology, Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, 273009, India)
Ravi Kant Upadhyay (Department of Zoology, Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, 273009, India)

Article ID: 3788

DOI: https://doi.org/10.30564/jhp.v3i2.3788

Abstract


Present review article explains tick-borne diseases, transmission, host immune responses, diagnosis and control in relation to climatic variations. Ticks are hematophagous ectoparasites which suck large volumes of blood from livestock and humans. They release large numbers of protozoans, bacteria, rickettsia and viral pathogens during blood feeding and transmit disease pathogens through saliva. Due to heavy blood sucking by ticks animals face significant blood and weight loss that affect their overall health. Due to more severe illness, high economic losses were noted in livestock. This article highlights medically important tick borne diseases in man and livestock, its pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment methods. The present article emphasizes invasion of hosts, host-pathogen interactions, tick saliva toxin induced host immune responses and biological effects. This article highlighted various tick control methods i.e. physical killing, acaricidal, biological, hormonal, genetic and immunological methods such as administration of protective antibody and vaccines for disease control in human being and his livestock. The authors suggest non-chemical environmentally safe methods for successful control of tick borne diseases to kill cattle, bird and canine invading ticks.


Keywords


Tick borne diseases; Blood feeding; Transmission; Pathogenesis; Diagnosis; Tick control; Vaccine therapy

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References


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