Development and initial validation of the Personal and Social Responsibility Scale for Physical Education Settings

Si Man (University of Macau)
Soi Po Wong (Unviersity of Macau)
Sin I Lam (Escola Primaria Luso-Cheines do Bairro Norte)
Tanjian Liang (Central Washington University)


 This study aims to develop a valid instrument measuring personal and social responsibility in physical education settings that is suitable for Chinese high school students age 14 and above. This instrument consists of eight aspects, which builds upon the levels of responsibility in Hellison’s (2011)[9] Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Model (TPSR). The eight aspects in the measurement include goal, responsibility, respecting the rights and feelings of others, participation and effort, self-direction, caring, and value. The validation of the measurement was conducted based on the responses from 1091 high school students in Macau, China. The convergent and discriminant validity tests and a maximum likelihood confirmation factor analysis were performed using AMOS 21. The Bollen-Stine bootstrapping model was applied to adjust nonnormality data. Results supported a good validity and reliability of the items in the instrument.


Physical education; Responsibility; TPSR; Scale development

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