Using Hierarchical Generalized Linear Modeling to Examine Contextual Differential Item Functioning: A Validity Study of Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy Scale

Jing Zhao (Old Dominion University)
Xiaojing Zou (Beijing Normal University)
Wenpeng Shang (Jinan University)

Article ID: 395



The purpose of the study was to further investigate the validity of the instrument used for collecting preservice teachers’ perceptions of self-efficacy adapting the three-level hierarchical generalized linear modeling (HGLM) model. To serve the purpose, the study used data collected by the research team which elicited preservices teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs using Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES). Hierarchical generalized linear modeling (HGLM) were used to analyze the data. Results of the HGLM analyses (at level-two) showed that one item in the scale displayed gender DIF. Another item became DIF item when the context variable was added to the level-two model. However, the effect of the context on the DIF item was not big.


HGLM, Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy Scale, DIF

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