Incidental Reactive Focus on Form in EFL Classes: Learners’ Formulaic vs. Non-formulaic Errors, Their Treatment, and Effectiveness

Leila Gholami (Arizona State University)
Zahra Gholami (Kharazmi University)

Abstract


Research on incidental focus on form (FonF) has established associations among nature of learner error, corrective feedback (CF), and effectiveness of CF measured through uptake. In this line of research, the analysis of learner error has been limited to grammatical, lexical, and phonological errors (non-formulaic). Consequently, learners’ errors with formulaic sequences (FSs) comprising collocations, lexical bundles, idioms, and compounds (formulaic) have not yet been investigated in FonF studies. To address this gap, especially given the holistic nature of FSs as self-standing units of meaning and their ubiquity in natural discourse, this study examined the extent learners’ errors with formulaic vis-à-vis non-formulaic foci were treated in language-related episodes and uptake and successful uptake. The data consisted of 36 hours of audio-recorded teacher-learner interactions in primarily communicative activities from three advanced English as a foreign language classrooms. The findings demonstrate that while learners’ formulaic-oriented errors outnumbered non-formulaic ones, the teachers provided CF significantly more often for non-formulaic errors. However, learners produced significantly more uptake and successful uptake when CF was provided for formulaic-oriented errors compared to non-formulaic errors. The learners’ higher successful uptake following formulaic-oriented errors could be attributed to the relatively higher saliency, noticeability, and significance of FSs in meaning making.


Keywords


Corrective feedback; Formulaic language; Incidental focus on form, Language-related episodes; Uptake

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References


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.30564/jler.v3i1&2.2281

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