Paweł Grzegorz Kossakowski (Kielce University of Technology Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture)
Wiktor Wciślik (Kielce University of Technology Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture)
Michał Bakalarz (Kielce University of Technology Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture)


Friction Stir Welding (FSW) technology is increasingly used in aerospace, automotive, construction and other industries. It allows for safe, secure and long-lasting joining of materials that are difficult to weld or non-weldable with traditional methods. In engineering practice, these are primarily aluminium alloys.


Friction Stir Welding (FSW); welding parameters; aluminium alloys; macrostructure; "onion rings"

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