Schistosomal Colorectal Cancer: Biomarkers and Treatment Strategies

Hytham K. S. Hamid (Department of Surgery, Soba University Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan.)


About 15.4% of human cancers worldwide have been attributed to infections. Among these, blood and liver flukes, notably Schistosoma sp, Clonorchis Sinesis, and Opisthorchis Viverrini have been associated with the development of various cancer types. Schistosoma sp. promotes colorectal cancer (CRC) progression through multiple mechanisms including production of toxins, symbiotic action with bacterial agents, and more importantly chronic inflammation. Diagnosis of schistosomal colorectal cancer (SCC) requires high index of clinical suspicion in endemic areas. Novel biomarkers may aid early diagnosis of SCC in patients with chronic intestinal schistosomiasis. Treatment should be tailored to individual patients according to the stage and biologic characteristics of the tumour, and the extent of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. Long-term survival after surgical resection of SCC is lower than that reported in patients with sporadic CRC.


Blood fluke; Schistosoma; Trematoda; Colorectal cancer; Diagnosis; Biomarkers; Treatment

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