Critical Factors in Promoting Sustainable Innovation in Bahrain

Ahmed Al-Ansari (Alansari Studios, Bahrain)
Hassan AL Mohsen (Education Consultant, Bahrain)
Christine (Noor) Elizabeth Coutts (Education Consultant, New Zealand)

Article ID: 4596

Abstract


Despite many initiatives to help foster innovation over the last decade, Bahrain has yet to realise its full potential, indicated by low levels of published research, patent registrations, and entrepreneurial activities. The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the importance of sustainable innovation for economic recovery. This study aimed to identify the critical factors needed to stimulate innovation, as well as any barriers. Using a case study approach, emerging findings from an online survey of participants from a range of private and government organizations were explored through in-depth interviews with selected "innovation influencers". It was found that the economic and cultural environments in Bahrain favor a conservative approach to innovation, with the opening of new market opportunities with existing products the most reported form applied. The need for a sustainable economic recovery post-pandemic has raised awareness of the importance of innovation in all its forms. The environmental factors influencing innovation are charted in an ecosystem model, with effective leadership and a national strategy identified as key components. The Innovation Ecosystem derived from this case study of Bahrain has wider applicability as a benchmarking framework. By mapping the local context against framework elements, identified gaps can usefully inform a sustainable innovation strategy at both a national and organizational level.


Keywords


Sustainable innovation, Innovation ecosystem, Bahrain

Full Text:

PDF

References


[1] Buheji, M., Vovk Korže, A., Eidan, S., et al., 2020. Optimising Pandemic Response Through Self-Sufficiency – A Review Paper. American Journal of Economics. 10(5), 277-283.

[2] Coutts, C.E., 2020. ‘Pure As’: Clean, Green and Covid-free! International Journal of Inspiration & Resilience Economy.

[3] Mace, M., 2020. ‘Normal Was a Crisis’: Why the Green New Deal is the Perfect Response for the Post-Covid-19 Economy. [Online]. Available: https:// www.edie.net/library/-Normal-was-a-crisis---Whythe-Green-New-Deal-offers-hope-to-the-post-Covid19-economy/6971. (Accessed 10 June 2020).

[4] Charter, M., Clark, T., 2007. Sustainable Innovation: Key conclusions from Sustainable Innovation Conferences 2003–2006. CFSD, Surrey.

[5] OECD, 2020. Unemployment Rates, OECD - Updated: June 2020. [Online]. Available: http://www. oecd.org/newsroom/unemployment-rates-oecd-update-june-2020.htm. (Accessed 22 August 2020).

[6] Facebook/OECD/World Bank, 2020. The Future of Business Survey.

[7] Allianz Care, 2021. Global SME Statistics in 2020. [Online]. Available: https://www.allianzcare.com/en/ employers/employer-blogs/2021/03/global-sme-statistics.html. (Accessed 22 August 2021).

[8] World Bank, 2010. Innovation Policy: A Guide for Developing Countries.

[9] Silva, G., Di Serio, L.C., 2021. Innovation in the “Forgotten Businesses”. Innovation & Management Review. 18(4), 350-364.

[10] OECD, 2007. Innovation. [Online]. Available: https:// www.oecd.org/site/innovationstrategy/background. htm. (Accessed 23 August 2021).

[11] Koblerr, D., Schlotmann, J., Grampp, M., 2017. Innovation in Private Banking and Wealth Management: Embracing the Business Model Change. [Online]. Available: https://www2.deloitte.com/ch/ en/pages/financial-services/articles/innovation-in-private-banking-wealth-management.html. (Accessed 21 October 2020).

[12] Granstranda, O., Holgersson, M., 2020. Innovation Ecosystems: A conceptual Review and a New Definition. Technovation. 90-91.

[13] Burns, P., 2007. Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 2nd ed., Houndmills, Hampshire: Palgrave MacMillan. pp. 537.

[14] Information & eGovernment Authority, 2015. Innovation Through Collaboration: UN Study Tour 2015. Information & eGovernment Authority, Manama, Bahrain.

[15] Schaltegger, S., Wagner, M., 2011. Sustainable Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Innovation: Categories and Interactions. Business Strategy and the Environment. 20(4), 222-237. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/bse.682

[16] Demil, B., Lecocq, X., Warnier, V., 2018. “Business model thinking”, Business Ecosystems and Platforms: The New Perspective on the Environment of the Organization. Management (France). 21.

[17] Remøe, S.O., 2004. Governance of the Norwegian Innovation Policy System. OECD, Oslo.

[18] EDB, 2021. GCC Small Business ‘Boom’ to Drive Post-COVID Economy as Commercial Registrations Soar. [Online]. Available: https://www.bahrainedb. com/latest-news. (Accessed 31 March 2022).

[19] Zeleny, M., 2021. Entering the Age of Accelerated Change: In Search of Equilibrium. Human Systems Management. 40(1), 3-14.

[20] Price, N.J., 2018. What Is the Relationship Between Corporate Governance & Sustainability? [Online]. Available: https://insights.diligent.com/esg/ what-is-the-relationship-between-corporate-governance-sustainability/. (Accessed 11 December 2020).

[21] Rogers, T., 2016. Mapping the Innovation System in Eastern Ontario. Institute for Innovation and Technology Management, Ontario.

[22] Erdil, E., Pamukcu, T., Çetin, D., 2013. Institutional Environment, Economic Performance and Innovation in Turkey. Middle East Technical University. [Online]. Available: http://stps.metu.edu.tr/. (Accessed 27 August 2021).

[23] Stake, R., 2006. Multiple Case Study Analysis, New York: Guilford Press.

[24] Al-Ansari, A., 2020. 6 Factors to Improve Innovation in the GCC Region. [Online]. Available: https://alansaristudios.com/6-factors-to-improve-innovation-inthe-gcc-region/. (Accessed 24 August 2021).

[25] Glaser, B.G., Strauss, A.L., 1967. The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research, Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company.

[26] Moore, J.F., 1993. Predators and Prey: A New Ecology of Competition. [Online]. Available: https:// hbr.org/1993/05/predators-and-prey-a-new-ecology-of-competition. (Accessed 4 September 2021).

[27] Prasetyo, Y.E., 2017. From Storytelling to Social Change: The Power of Story in the Community Building. Community Development Academy. 3.

[28] Trading Economics, 2021. Bahrain GDP. [Online]. Available: https://tradingeconomics.com/bahrain/gdp. (Accessed 20 August 2021).

[29] MOFNE, 2020. Bahrain Economic Report 2019. [Online]. Available: https://www.mofne.gov.bh/Files/ cdoc/FI1267-BEQ%202019%20EN%20FINAL.pdf. (Accessed 20 August 2021).

[30] Tamkeen, 2020. Market Intelligence Review. [Online]. Available: https://www.tamkeen.bh/tamkeen-market-intelligence-review. (Accessed 15 August 2021).

[31] THE, 2021. World University Rankings 2021. [Online]. Available: www.timeshighereducation.com. (Accessed 18 September 2021).

[32] USPTO, 2019. Patent Counts by Origin and Type 2019. U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

[33] Puravankara, P., 2019. Tamkeen’s Support to Private Sector Firms Reached Over BD700m. News of Bahrain.

[34] Cornell, INSEAD, and WIPO, Global Innovation Index 2020, 2021. Who Will Finance Innovation? S. Dutta, B. Lanvin and S. Wunsch-Vincent, Eds., Geneva: World Intellectual Property Organization.

[35] Oxford Business Group, 2015. Bahrain’s First Higher Education and National Research Strategy is an Important Milestone. The Report: Bahrain 2015.

[36] Hussain, S., 2021. Corporate Governance in StateOwned Enterprises, Manama: eBookIt.com. pp. 300.

[37] Breunig, K., Skjølsvik, T., 2020. Understanding the Strategy-In.novation Link in an Era of Disruptions. Technology Innovation Management Review. 10(8), 4-13.

[38] Construction Week Online, 2019. Bahrain’s iGA, Tamkeen Ink MoU to Build Employability Skills Portal. [Online]. Available: https://www.constructionweekonline.com/business/260232-bahrains-iga-tamkeen-ink-mou-to-build-employability-skills-portal. (Accessed 19 February 2022).

[39] Miller Cole, B., 2020. Will Intrapreneurship and Entrepreneurial Thinking Change the Future of Business? [Online]. Available: https://www.forbes.com/ sites/biancamillercole/2020/07/08/will-intrapreneurship-and-entrepreneurial-thinking-change-the-future-of-business/?sh=63a0371442f7. (Accessed 24 August 2021).



DOI: https://doi.org/10.30564/jsbe.v5i2.4596

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright © 2022 The author(s) Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.