Effect of Feeding on Fresh (wet) Housefly Maggots (Musca domestica) with or without Artificial Diet on Water Quality and Growth Rates of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822) Fry under Laboratory Conditions

Hamed H.E. Saleh (Aquaculture Division, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries (NIOF), El-Fayoum, Egypt)


No or little information on the use fresh (wet) housefly maggots (Musca domestica) in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fry feeding. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding on fresh (wet) housefly maggots with or without artificial diet on water quality, growth performance, survival percentage and feed utilization of African catfish fry under laboratory conditions. Housefly maggots produced from a mixture of poultry droppings and foods wastes, it was used to replace artificial feed at 0, 50 and 100% levels. Catfish were fed artificial diet alone (Feed 1), fresh (wet) housefly maggots alone (Feed 2), and 50% fresh housefly maggots with 50% artificial diet (Feed 3) were prepared and tested on triplicate groups of African catfish fry (initial weight of 0.25±0.02 g) for 60 days. Results showed that final weight (g/fish) was significantly highest (P£0.05) in fish fed feed 3 (6.03±0.08), followed by fish fed feed 2 (4.62±0.27), followed by fish fed feed 1 (3.15±0.68). Specific growth rate (%/day) was also significantly highest in fish fed feed 3 (5.31±0.10), followed by fish fed feed 2 (4.86±0.03), followed by fish fed feed 1 (4.18±0.24). The same trend was observed with total weight gain, percentage weight gain, daily growth rate and relative growth rate. Feed intake and protein intake were significantly highest (P£0.05) in fish fed feed 3 and fish fed feed 2, followed by fish fed feed 1. While, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio were not significantly (P>0.05), but the improvement in FCR recorded in catfish fry fed feed 3 and feed 2 under the experimental conditions. Survival percentage was within the range 55–75%, with insignificant differences (P>0.05) among treatments. The water quality parameters such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, total ammonia, nitrite and nitrate were not significantly (P>0.05) among the treatments and were tolerable for fish culture. Accordingly, use of the 50% fresh (wet) housefly maggots with 50% artificial diet in African catfish fry feeding had positive effect on growth performance and reduce of the feed cost.


African catfish; Fresh (wet) housefly maggots; Artificial diet; Water quality; Growth performance; Survival percentage and feed utilization

Full Text:



[1] Adesulu, E.A. and Mustapha, A.K. (2000). Use of housefly maggots as fish meal replacement in Tilapia culture: A recent vogue in Nigeria. In: K. Fitzsimmons, K., Filho, J.C. (Eds). Proceedings of 5th International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture (ISTAV), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. pp. 138-143.

[2] Ajani, E.K.; Nwanna, L.C. and Musa, B.O. (2004). Replacement of fishmeal with maggot meal in the diets of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. World Aquaculture, 35: 52-54.

[3] Alegbeleye, W.O.; Anyanwu, D.F. and Akeem, A.M. (2003). Effect of varying dietary protein levels on the growth and utilization performance of catfish, Clarias gariepinus. Proceedings of the 4th Annual Conference of Nigerian Association of Aquatic Science Ibadan, Nigeria. p 51-53.

[4] Aniebo, A.O.; Erondu, E.S. and Owen, O.J. (2008). Proximate composition of housefly larvae (Musca domestica) meal generated from mixture of cattle blood and wheat bran. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 20 (12): 1-5.

[5] Aniebo, A.O.; Erondu, E.S. and Owen, O.J. (2009). Replacement of fish meal with maggot meal in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) diets. UDO Agricola., 9 (3): 666-671.

[6] Aniebo, A.O.; Odukwe, C.A.; Ebenebe, C.I.; Ajuogu, P.K.; Owen, O.J. and Onu, P.N. (2011). Effect of housefly larvae (Musca domestica) meal on the carcass and sensory qualities of the Mud catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Advances in Food and Energy Security, 1: 24-28.

[7] AOAC (2000). Official Methods of Analysis, 17th edition. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, Virginia, U.S.A.

[8] APHA (1992). Standard methods for the examination of water and waste, 18th ed. American Public Health Association, Washington DC. 1268 pp.

[9] Arong, G.A. and Eyo, V.O. (2017). Evaluation of housefly (Musca domestica) maggot meal and termite (Macrotermes subhyalinus) meal as supplementary feed for African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822). International Journal of Entomology and Nematology, 3(1): 42-50.

[10] Atse, B.C.; Ossey, Y.B.; Koffi, K.M. and Kouame, P.L. (2014). Effects of feeding by-products; maggot meal, fish meal, soybean meal, blood meal and beef brain on growth, survival and carcass composition of African catfish, Heterobranchus longifilis Valenciennes, 1840 larvae under recirculating conditions. International Journal of Agriculture Innovations and Research, 2(4): 530-535.

[11] Atteh, J.O. and Olugbenla, F.D. (1993). Replacement of fishmeal with maggots in broiler diet: Effects on performance and nutrient retention. Nigerian Journal of Animal Production, 20: 44-49.

[12] Awoniyi, T.; Aletor, V. and Aina, J. (2003). Performance of broiler chickens fed on maggot meal in place of fishmeal. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 2: 271-274.

[13] Boyd, C.E. (1990). Water quality in ponds for aquaculture. Alabama Agric. Exptn. Stn Auburn University, Alabama, 120 pp.

[14] Duncan, D.B. (1955). Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics, 11: 1-42.

[15] El-Hawarry, W.N.; Abd El-Rahman, S.H. and Shourbela, R.M. (2016). Breeding response and larval quality of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus, Burchell 1822) using different hormones/hormonal analogues with dopamine antagonist. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, 42: 231-239

[16] FAO (2012). Report of the Sixth Session of the Sub-Committee on Aquaculture. Food and Agricultural Organization, Cape Town, South Africa, 26-30 March 2012.

[17] FAO (2013). Edible insects: future prospects for food and feed security. Food and Agricultural Organization. pp 97-101.

[18] Fasakin, E.A.; Balogun, A.M. and Ajayi, O.O. (2003). Nutrition implication of processed maggot meals; hydrolyzed, defatted, full-fat, sun-dried and oven-dried, in the diets of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. Aquaculture Research, 9 (34): 733-738.

[19] Fashina-Bombata, H.A. and Balogun, O. (1997). The effect of partial or total replacement of fish meal with maggot meal in the diet of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fry. Journal of prospects in science, 1: 178-181.

[20] Faturoti, E.O. and Ifili, N.N. (2007). Growth performance of Clarias gariepinus fed on plankton; frozen maggot and pelleted feed in a floating Hapa system. J. Fish Tech., 2: 117-123.

[21] Garling Jr., D.L. and Wilson, R.P. (1976). Optimum dietary protein to energy ratio for channel catfish fingerlings, Ictalurus punctatus. Journal of Nutrition, 106 (9): 1368-1375.

[22] Hwangbo, J.; Hong, E.C.; Jang, A.; Kang, H.K.; Oh, J.S.; Kim, B.W. and Park, B.S. (2009). Utilization of house fly-maggots, a feed supplement in the production of broiler chickens. Journal of Environmental Biology, 30(4): 609-614.

[23] Idowu, A.B.; Amusan, A.A.S. and Oyediran, A.G. (2003). The response of fingerlings Clarias gariepinus (Burchell1822) to the diet containing Housefly maggot (Musca domestica). Nigerian Journal of Animal Production, 30 (1): 139-144.

[24] Ipinmoroti, M.O.; Akanmu, O.A. and Iyiola, A.O. (2019). Utilisation of house fly maggots (Musca domestica) as replacement for fish meal in the diets of Clarias gariepinus juveniles. Journal of Insects as Food and Feed, 5 (2): 69-76.

[25] Mustapha, A.K. and Kolawole, A.A. (2019). Potentials of fresh Housefly maggot in the diet of Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage., 23 (4) 681-687.

[26] NRC (National Research Council) (1993). Nutrient requirements of fish. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

[27] Ogunji, J.O. and Wirth, M. (2001). Alternative protein sources as substitutes for fish meal in the diet of young Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Israeli J. Aqua – Bamidgeh, 53: 34-43.

[28] Ogunji, J.O.; Kloas, W.; Wirth, M.; Schulz, C. and Rennert, B. (2006). Housefly maggot meal (Magmeal): An emerging substitute of fishmeal in Tilapia diets. Conference on International Agricultural Research for Development, Deutscher Tropentag, October 11-13.

[29] Ogunji, J.; Trua, S.; Schulz, C. and Kloas, W. (2008). Growth performance, nutrient utilization of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Pak. Vet. J., 34(3): 288-292.

[30] Okore, O.O.; Ekedo, C.M.; Ubiaru, P.C. and Uzodinma, K. (2016). Growth and haematological studies of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) juveniles fed with Housefly larva (Musca dometica) as feed supplement. International Journal of Agriculture and Earth Science, 2 (3): 21-30.

[31] Omotugba, S.K.; Meduna, A.J.; Ugege, P.E. and Ogundun, N.J. (2005). Growth response of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822) fingerlings fed with varying levels of maggot meal. Federal College of Wildlife Management, New Bussa, Niger State. J. Agric. Res. and Dev., 4(2): 170-175.

[32] Omoyinmi, G.A.K. and Olaoye, O.J. (2012). Growth performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed diets containing different sources of animal protein. Libyan Agriculture Research Center Journal International, 3 (1): 18-23.

[33] Saleh, H.H.E. (2016). Effect of some feeding and rearing systems on productive performance of the Egyptian sole (Solea aegyptiaca). Ph.D. Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, El-Fayoum University, Egypt.

[34] Saleh, H.H.E.; Allam, S.M.; Abou-Zied, R.M.; Mohamed, R.A. and Aljilany, S.S.A. (2016). Effect of diet type and stocking density on growth performance and blood parameters of the Egyptian sole (Solea aegyptiaca Chabanaud, 1927). Abbassa Int. J. Aqua., 9 (1): 84-134.

[35] Sogbesan, A.O.; Ajuonu, N.; Musa, B.O. and Adewole, A.M., (2006). Harvesting techniques and evaluation of maggot meal as animal dietary protein source for “Heteroclarias” in outdoor concrete tanks. World J. Agric. Sci., 2(4): 394-402

[36] Spinelli, J.; Mahnken, C. and Steinberg, M. (2011). Alternative sources of protein for fish meal in salmonid diets. Proceedings of World Symposium on Finfish Nutrition and Fish feed Technology, Hamburg 20-23 June, 1978. Vol. II. Heenemann GMBH, Berlin, pp. 132-143.

[37] SPSS (2015). Statistical Package For Social Science (for Windows). Release 23 Copyright (C), SPSS Inc., Chicago, USA.

[38] Swann, L.D. (1997). A fish farmers guide to understanding water quality. Illinois-Indiana Sea Grant Program. AS-503. Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana. 8 pp.

[39] Teotia, J.S. and Miller, B.F. (1973). Fly pupae as a dietary ingredient for starting chicks. Poultry Science, 52: 1830-1835.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.30564/jzr.v2i2.2053


  • There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright © 2020 Hamed H.E. Saleh

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.