Measuring Food and Nutrition Security in Circumpolar Communities

Vasilii Erokhin (Harbin Engineering University)

Abstract


The issue of food and nutrition security (FNS) brings together concerns over a range of environmental, economic, social, and cultural changes which taken together influence the diets and health of the population. There have been many attempts to capture specific overlapping dimensions of food and nutrition security in circumpolar territories. None of them, however, has resulted in the elaboration of a comprehensive set of parameters which could reflect the entire complexity of transforming food consumption patterns in indigenous communities, strengthening of human pressure on the environment, and progressing climate change in the Arctic. To bridge the gap, the author employed a two-stage survey of international experts and promoted a set of eighteen measures along the availability, accessibility, utilization, and stability pillars. Introduction of a parameter rating scale allowed measuring and comparing food and nutrition statuses of indigenous communities on the per pillar basis. The key outcome of the study is the establishment of the FNS status scoring system which may become one of the potential solutions to the existing problem of effective translation of discrepant international and national parameters into a unified measurement applicable across circumpolar territories in Arctic countries.

Keywords


Arctic; Environment; Food security; Health; Nutrition

Full Text:

PDF

References


Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.. Nutrition Indicators for Development [R]. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2005.

Quisumbing, A.R., Brown, L.R., Feldstein, H.S., Haddad, L., & Pena, C.. Women: The Key to Food Security [M]. Washington, DC: The International Food Policy Research Institute, 1995.

Pangaribowo, E.H., Gerber, N., & Torero, M.. Food and Nutrition Security Indicators: A Review [C]. ZEF Working Paper Series, Bonn: University of Bonn, 2013, 108.

Weingartner, L.. The Concept of Food and Nutrition Security [C]. In K. Klennert (Ed.), Achieving Food and Nutrition Security: Actions to Meet the Global Challenge – A Training Course Reader. Bonn: Inwent, 2010: 3-28.

Premanandh, J.. Factor Affecting Food Security and Contribution of Modern Technologies in Food Sustainability [J]. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 2011, 91: 2707-2714.

Erokhin, V.. Factors Influencing Food Markets in Developing Countries: An Approach to Assess Sustainability of the Food Supply in Russia [J]. Sustainability, 2017, 9: 1313.

DOI: 10.3390/su9081313

Erokhin, V., Ivolga, A., & Lisova, O.. Challenges to Sustainable Rural Development in Russia: Social Issues and Regional Divergences [J]. Applied Studies in Agribusiness and Commerce – APSTRACT, 2016, 10(1): 45-52.

Nilsson, L.M., Berner, J., Dudarev, A.A., Mulvad, G., Odland, J.O., Parkinson, A., Rautio, A., Tikhonov, C., & Evengard, B.. Indicators of Food and Water Security in an Arctic Health Context – Results from an International Workshop Discussion [J]. International Journal of Circumpolar Health, 2013, 72: 21530.

DOI: 10.3402/ijch.v72i0.21530

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.. Food, Nutrition, and Agriculture [R]. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1992.

Sonne, C., Letcher, R.J., Jenssen, B.M., Desforges, J.-P., Eulaers, I., Andersen-Ranberg, E., Gustavson, K., Styrishave, B., & Dietz, R.. A Veterinary Perspective on One Health in the Arctic [J]. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 2017, 59, 84.

Condon, R.G., Collings, P., & Wenzel, G.. The Best Part of Life: Subsistence Hunting, Ethnicity and Economic Adaptation among Young Adults [J]. Arctic, 1995, 48(1): 31.

Duhaime, G., Chabot, M., & Gaudreault, M.. Food Consumption Patterns and Socioeconomic Factors among the Inuit of Nunavik [J]. Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 2002, 41(2): 91-118.

Lambden, J., Receveur, O., Marshall, J., & Kuhnlein, H.V.. Traditional and Market Food Access in Arctic Canada is Affected by Economic Factors [J]. International Journal of Circumpolar Health, 2006, 65(4): 331-340.

McKinney, M.A., Iverson, S.J., Fisk, A.T., Sonne, C., Riget, F.F., Letcher, R.J., Arts, M.T., Born, E.W., Rosing-Asvid, A., & Dietz, R.. Global Change Effects on the Long Term Feeding Ecology and Contaminant Exposures of East Greenland Polar Bears [J]. Global Change Biology, 2013, 19: 2360-2372.

Jenssen, B.M., Villanger, G.D., Gabrielsen, K.M., Bytingsvik, J., Bechshoft, T., Ciesielski, T.M., Sonne, C., & Dietz, R.. Anthropogenic Flank Attack on Polar Bears: Interacting Consequences of Climate Warming and Pollutant Exposure [J]. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 2015, 3: 1-7.

Garcia, S.M., & Rosenberg, A.A.. Food Security and Marine Capture Fisheries: Characteristics, Trends, Drivers and Future Perspectives [J]. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 2010, 365(1554): 2869-2880.

Hansen, J.C., Deutch, B., & Odland, J.O.. Dietary Transition and Contaminants in the Arctic: Emphasis on Greenland [J]. Circumpolar Health, 2008, 2: 10-25.

Ivanov, V., & Ivanova, E.. Arctic Specifics of Food Supply and Development of Agriculture of the European North-East of Russia [J]. The Arctic: Ecology and Economy, 2017, 26(2): 117-130.

Kozlov, V., & Dorogovtsev, A.. Problems of Food Supply in the European North. Methodological Background and Problems of Food Supply of the Regions [M]. Vologda: Legia, 2000.

Muir, D.C.G., & de Wit, C.A.. Trends of Legacy and New Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Circumpolar Arctic: Overview, Conclusions, and Recommendations [J]. Science of the Total Environment, 2010, 408: 3044-3051.

Wesche, S.D., & Chan, H.M.. Adapting to the Impacts of Climate Change on Food Security among Inuit in the Western Canadian Arctic [J]. EcoHealth, 2010, 7(3): 361-373.

Hastrup, K., Rieffestahl, A.M., & Olsen, A.. Food Security: Health and Environmental Concerns in the North [C]. In M. Singer (Ed.), A Companion to the Anthropology of Environmental Health. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2016: 257-280.

Nobel, J.. Farming in the Arctic: It Can Be Done [N]. Retrieved February, 2013, 7: 2019.

https://modernfarmer.com/2013/10/arctic-farming

Dresscher, S.-J.. Food Security in the High Arctic while Balancing the Demands of Commercial and Subsistence Hunting [J]. Journal fur Enkwicklungspolitik, 2016, 32(4): 41-66.

Koutouki, K., Booth, S., & Blum, S.. Inuit Food Security in Canada: Arctic Marine Ethnoecology [J]. Food Security, 2017, 9(3): 1-20.

Ready, E.. Challenges in the Assessment of Inuit Food Security [J]. Arctic, 2016, 69(3): 266-280.

Gao, T.. Food Security and Rural Development on Emerging Markets of Northeast Asia: Cases of Chinese North and Russian Far East [C]. In V. Erokhin (Ed.), Establishing Food Security and Alternatives to International Trade in Emerging Economies. Hershey, PA: IGI Global, 2017: 155-176.

Erokhin, V.. Development of Rural Territories in the Far East, Russia and Heilongjiang Province, P.R.China [J]. Agricultural Bulletin of Stavropol Region, 2016, 23(3): 256-260.

Ivolga, A.. Overview of Contemporary Issues of Sustainable Rural Development in Russia in Terms of Existing Differences between Regions [J]. Economics of Agriculture, 2014, 2: 331-345.

Zabrodin, V., & Layshev, K.. Food Security as a Basis for the Conservation and Sustainable Development of Arctic [C]. In T. Khabrieva (Ed.), Russian Arctic – Territory of Law. Salekhard: Government оf Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District; Moscow: Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, 2015: 246-252.

Power, E.M.. Conceptualizing Food Security for Aboriginal People in Canada [J]. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 2008, 99(2): 95-97.

de Haen, H., Klasen, S., & Qaim, M.. What Do We Really Know? Metrics for Food Insecurity and Undernutrition [J]. Food Policy, 2011, 36: 760-769.

bSvedberg, P.. Undernutrition Overestimated [J]. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 2002, 51(1): 5-36.

Qaim, M., Stein, A.J., & Meenakshi, J.V.. Economics of Biofortification [J]. Agricultural Economics, 2007, 37(S1): 119-133.

Dasgupta, P.. Nutritional Status, the Capacity for Work, and Poverty Traps [J]. Journal of Econometrics, 1997, 77(1): 5-37.

Masset, E.. A Review of Hunger Indices and Methods to Monitor Country Commitment to Fighting Hunger [J]. Food Policy, 2011, 36: 102-108.

Lawn, J., & Harvey, D.. Nutrition and Food Security in Kugaaruk, Nunavut: Baseline Survey for the Food Mail Pilot Project [M]. Ottawa: Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, 2003.

Von Braun, J.. The Food Crisis Isn’t Over [J]. Nature, 2008, 456: 701.

DOI: 10.1038/456701a

Svedberg, P.. How Many People Are Malnourished? [J]. Annual Review of Nutrition, 2011, 31: 263-283.

Walker, S.P., Wachs, T.D., Gardner, J.M., Lozoff, B., Wasserman, G.A., Politt, E., & Carter, J.A.. Child Development: Risk Factors for Adverse Outcomes in Developing Countries [J]. The Lancet, 2007, 369: 145-157.

Brustad, M., Parr, C.L., Melhus, M., & Lund, E.. Dietary Patterns in the Population Living in the Sami Core Areas of Norway – The SAMINOR Study [J]. International Journal of Circumpolar Health, 2008, 67: 82-96.

Johansson, I., Nilsson, L.M., Stegmayr, B., Boman, K., Hallmans, G., & Winkvist, A.. Associations among 25-Year Trends in Diet, Cholesterol and BMI from 140,000 Observations in Men and Women in Northern Sweden [J]. Nutrition Journal, 2012, 11: 40.

DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-11-40

Hoddinott, J., & Yohannes, Y.. Dietary Diversity as a Food Security Indicator [M]. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute, 2002.

Nachvak, S.M., Abdollahzad, H., Mostafai, R., Moradi, S., Pasdar, Y., Rezaei, M., & Esksndari, S.. Dietary Diversity Score and Its Related Factors among Employees of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences [J]. Clinical Nutrition Research, 2017, 6: 247-255.

Daures, J.P., Gerber, M., Scali. J., Astre, C., Bonifacj, C., & Kaaks, R.. Validation of a Food Frequency Questionnaire Using Multiple-day Records and Biochemical Markers: Application of the Triads Method [J]. Journal of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, 2000, 5: 109-115.

Kabagambe, K., Baylin, A., Allan, D.A., Siles, X., Spiegelman, D., & Campos, H.. Application of the Method of Triads to Evaluate the Performance of Food Frequency Questionnaires and Biomarkers as Indicators of Long-term Dietary Intake [J]. American Journal of Epidemiology, 2001, 154(12): 1126-1135.

Egeland, G.M., Johnson-Down, L., Cao, Z.R., Sheikh, N., & Weiler, H.. Food Insecurity and Nutrition Transition Combine to Affect Nutrient Intakes in Canadian Arctic Communities [J]. Journal of Nutrition, 2011, 141: 1746-1753.

Jeppesen, C., Bjerregaard, P., & Jorgensen, M.E.. Dietary Patterns in Greenland and Their Relationship with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Glucose Intolerance [J]. Public Health Nutrition, 2013, 17(2): 462-470.

Sheehy, T., Kolahdooz, F., Roache, C., & Sharma, S.. Traditional Food Consumption Is Associated with Better Diet Quality and Adequacy Among Inuit Adults in Nunavut, Canada [J]. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 2015, 66: 445-451.

Riely, F., Mock, N., Cogill, B., Bailey, L., & Kenefick, E.. Food Security Indicators and Framework for Use in the Monitoring and Evaluation of Food Aid Programs [M]. Washington, DC: Academy for Educational Development, 1999.

Duhaime, G., & Bernard, N.. Arctic Food Security [M]. Edmonton: Canadian Circumpolar Institute Press, 2008.

Inuit Circumpolar Council.. Food Security across the Arctic [R]. Ottawa: Inuit Circumpolar Council, 2012.

Huet, C., Rosol, R., & Egeland, G.M.. The Prevalence of Food Insecurity is High and the Diet Quality Poor in Inuit Communities [J]. Journal of Nutrition, 2012, 142(3): 541-547.

Kuhnlein, H.V.. Factors Influencing the Use of Traditional Foods among the Nuxalk People [J]. Journal of the Canadian Dietetic Association, 1989, 50(2): 102-108.

Kuhnlein, H.V.. Change in the Use of Traditional Foods by the Nuxalk Native People of British Columbia [J]. Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 1992, 27: 259-282.

Batal, M., Gray-Donald, K., Kuhnlein, H.V., & Receveur, O.. Estimation of Traditional Food Intake in Indigenous Communities in Denendeh and the Yukon [J]. International Journal of Circumpolar Health, 2004, 64(1): 46-54.

Blanchet, C., Dewailly, E., Ayotte, P., Bruneau, S., Receveur, O., & Holub, B.. Contribution of Selected Traditional and Market Foods to the Diet of Nunavik Inuit Women [J]. Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research, 2000, 61(2): 50-59.

Kuhnlein, H.V., Receveur, O., Soueida, R., & Egeland, G.M.. Arctic Indigenous Peoples Experience the Nutrition Transition with Changing Dietary Patterns and Obesity [J]. Journal of Nutrition, 2004, 134(6): 1447-1453.

Beaumier, M.C., & Ford, J.D.. Food Insecurity among Inuit Women Exacerbated by Socioeconomic Stresses and Climate Change [J]. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 2010, 101(3): 196-201.

Fergurson, H.. Inuit Food (In)Security in Canada: Assessing the Implications and Effectiveness of Policy [J]. Queen’s Policy Review, 2011, 2(2): 54-79.

Huet, C., Ford, J.D., Edge, V.L., Shirley, J., King, N., & Harper, S.L.. Food Insecurity and Food Consumption by Season in Households with Children in an Arctic City: A Cross-Sectional Study [J]. BioMed Central Public Health, 2017, 17: 578.

Eganyan, R.. Nutritional Characteristics in Dwellers of the Far North of Russia (A Review of Literature) [J]. The Russian Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, 2013, 5: 41-47.

Dudarev, A.A., Alloyarov, P.R., Chupakhin, V.S., Dushkina, E.V., Sladkova, Y.N., Dorofeyev, V.M., Kolesnikova, T.A., Fridman, K.B., Nilsson, L.M., & Evengard, B.. Food and Water Security Issues in Russia I: Food Security in the General Population of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East, 2000-2011 [J]. International Journal of Circumpolar Health, 2013, 72, 21848.

DOI: 10.3402/ijch.v72i0.21848

Revich, B., Chashchin, V., Kharkova, T., Kvasha Y., Bogoyavlensky, D., Tronin, A., Tokarevich, N., Buzinov, R., Kershengolts, B., Chernyavskiy, V., Nikiforov, O., & Repin, V.. Climate Change Impact on Public Health in the Russian Arctic [M]. Moscow: United Nations in the Russian Federation, 2008.

Parkinson, A.J., & Butler, J.C.. Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Infectious Diseases in the Arctic [J]. International Journal of Circumpolar Health, 2005, 64: 478-486.

Thomas, K.M., Charron, D.F., Waltner-Toews, D., Schuster, C., Maarouf, A.R., & Holt, J.D.. A Role of High Impact Weather Events in Waterborne Disease Outbreaks in Canada, 1975-2001 [J]. International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 2006, 16(3): 167-180.

Von Braun, J., & Torero, M.. Implementing Physical, and Virtual Food Reserves to Protect the Poor and Prevent Market Failure [C]. In B. Lilliston & A. Ronallo (Ed.), Grain Reserves and the Food Price Crisis: Selected Writings from 2008-2012. Minneapolis, MN: Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy, 2012: 25-30.

Guyot, M., Dickson, C., Paci, C., Furgal, C., & Chan, H.M.. Local Observations of Climate Change and Impacts on Traditional Food Security in Two Northern Aboriginal Communities [J]. International Journal of Circumpolar Health, 2006, 65(5): 403-415.

Kuhnlein, H.V., & Chan, H.M.. Environment and Contaminants in Traditional Food Systems of Northern Indigenous Peoples [J]. Annual Review of Nutrition, 2000, 20: 595-626.

Jeppesen, C., Bjerregaard, P., & Young, T.K.. Food-Based Dietary Guidelines in Circumpolar Regions [J]. Circumpolar Health, 2011, 8: 4-40.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.30564/mmpp.v1i2.856

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright © 2019 Vasilii Erokhin Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.