Municipal Solid Waste in Turkey and Its Relationship with the Population

Kazim Onur Demirarslan (Department of Environmental Engineering, Artvin Coruh University, Artvin, 08000, Turkey)
Ismet Yener (Department of Forestry, Artvin Coruh University, Artvin, 08000, Turkey)

Abstract


The population of Turkey has increased rapidly in parallel with the rise in technology and industrialization. The increasing population of the country has triggered urbanization, and environmental problems have drawn attention. One of the issues resulting from urbanization is municipal solid waste (MSW). Every object we use in our daily life is transformed into solid waste when its economic life has ended. The processes from the storage of these wastes to their disposal, often referred to as MSW management, come under the municipalities' authority and responsibility. MSW must be processed with the most negligible environmental impact. This study aimed to investigate MSW management systems in Turkey, including the quantity, composition, and disposal methods of MSW generated and populations served by MSW, MSW per capita per day. Results from the study showed that the mean MSW generated in Turkey was 26.74 Mton/yr and increased in the following order by region; Eastern Anatolia < South East Anatolia < Black Sea < Mediterranean < Aegean < Central Anatolia < Marmara. This order/ranking was in line with the regions' population. The population explained 84 to 95% of the variation in MSW. Results from the study could be used in MSW management.


Keywords


Municipal solid waste; Disposal methods; Developing countries; Turkey

Full Text:

PDF

References


[1] Das, S. Lee, S. H., Kumar, P., Kim, K. H., Lee, S. S., Bhattacharya, S.S. Solid waste management: Scope and the challenge of sustainability, J. Clean. Prod., 2019, 228: 658-678.

[2] Bach, Q.V., Chen,W.H., Eng,C.F., Wang, C.W., Liang,K.C., Kuo, J.Y. Pyrolysis characteristics and non-isothermal torrefaction kinetics of industrial solid wastes, Fuel, 2019, 251: 118-125.

[3] Wang, H., Wang, C., Municipal solid waste management in Beijing: Characteristics and challenges, Waste Manag. Res., 2013, 31(1): 67-72.

[4] Kaza, S., Yao, L., Bhada-Tata, P., Woerden, F. V., What a Waste 2.0 A Global Snapshot of Solid Waste Management to 2050, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank, 2018.

[5] Gündüz Yılmaz A., Türkiye’de yoksullukla mücadele üzerine bir inceleme, Elektronik Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 2006, 5(15): 34-55.

[6] Chen, Y.C., Effects of urbanization on municipal solid waste composition, Waste Manag., 2018, 79: 828-836.

[7] Pereira, T.S., Fernandino, G., Evaluation of solid waste management sustainability of a coastal municipality from northeastern Brazil, Ocean Coast. Manag., 2019, 179: 104839.

[8] Kolekar, K.A., Hazra, T., Chakrabarty, S.N., A Review on Prediction of Municipal Solid Waste Generation Models, Procedia Environ. Sci., 2016, 35: 238- 244.

[9] Ozcan, H.K., Guvenc, S.Y., Guvenc, L., Demir, G., Municipal solid waste characterization according to different income levels: A case study, Sustain., 2016, 8: 10.

[10] Turan, N.G., Çoruh, S., Akdemir, A., Ergun, ON, Municipal solid waste management strategies in Turkey, Waste Manag., 2009, 29(1): 465-469.

[11] Jung, H., Sewu, D.D., Ohemeng-Boahen, G., Lee, D.S., Woo, S.H., Characterization and adsorption performance evaluation of waste char by-product from industrial gasification of solid refuse fuel from municipal solid waste, waste Manag., 2019, 91:pp. 33-41.

[12] Marques, R.C., Simões, P., Incentive regulation and performance measurement of the Portuguese solid waste management services, Waste Manag. Res., 2009, 27(2):188-196.

[13] Mesjasz-Lech, A., Reverse logistics of municipal solid waste - Towards zero waste cities, Transp. Res. Procedia, 2019, 39 (2018): 320-332.

[14] Yılmaz, İ.H., Abdulvahitoğlu, A., Evaluation of municipal solid waste options in Turkey: Scenarios for energy recovery, carbon mitigation and consequent financial strategies, Resour. Conserv. Recycl., 2019, 147 (February):95-110.

[15] Trends in Solid Waste Management, https://datatopics.worldbank.org/what-a-waste/trends_in_solid_ waste_management.html. [Accessed: 15.11.2019]

[16] Gu, T., Yin, C., Ma, W., Chen, G., Municipal solid waste incineration in a packed bed: A comprehensive modeling study with experimental validation, Appl. Energy, 2019, 247(March):127-139.

[17] Güleç Solak, S., Pekküçükşen, Ş., Municipal solid waste management in Turkey: A comparative analysis, MANAS Journal of Social Studies, 2018, 7(3): 653-683.

[18] Demirarslan, K.O., Başak, S., “Solid waste management in Eastern Black Sea Region Provinces, Ulus. Çevre Bilim. Araştırma Derg., 2018, 1(3): 117-132.

[19] Evin, H., Demiral, B., Solid Waste Management in Malatya: Effects on Local Environmental Policies of Urbanization, Social Sciences Research Journal, 2018, 7(2): 277-295.

[20] Gülmez, M., Municipal solid waste management at local level -derince example, Master Thesis, 2016, T.C. Gebze Technical University Graduate School of Natural and Applied Science, Turkey.

[21] Demirarslan, O., Demirarslan, D., Development of New Settlement Areas and Solid Waste Problem in Cities: Case Study on Izmit - Yahyakaptan Neighbourhood, Journal of Natural Hazards and Environment, 2016, 2(2): 108-120.

[22] Bay, M., Waste management and policies in municipalities: Karaman example, The Journal of International Social Research, 2018, 11(61): 669-781.

[23] Zengin, E., Ulutaş, K., Determination and Applyingof Municipal Solid Waste Fees in Metropolitan District Municipality, Yalova Üniversitesi Sos. Bilim. Derg., 2016, 6(11): 26-26.

[24] Korucu, M.K., A criticism of method selection approach which is used in the national waste management action plans for management of municipal solid wastes, Ulus. Çevre Bilim. Araştırma Derg., 2019, 2(4): 169-176.

[25] Team, R. C. 2013. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. URL http://www.R-project. org/. [Accessed: 10.01. 2020]

[26] Childs, C. 2004. Interpolating surfaces in ArcGIS spatial analyst. ArcUser, July-September, 3235, 569

[27] ESRI, E. 2014. ArcMap 10.2. Redlands, USA.

[28] Data for Turkey, The World Bank, https://data. worldbank.org/?locations=TR-XT. [Accessed: 09.09. 2020]

[29] United Nations, World economic situation prospects, https://www.un.org/development/desa/dpad/wp-content/uploads/sites/45/WESP2019_BOOK-ANNEXen.pdf [Accessed: 09.02.2020]

[30] https://www.e-icisleri.gov.tr/Anasayfa/MulkiIdariBolumleri.aspx. [Accessed: 09.02.2020]

[31] Kiliç, A., Kum, S., Ünal, A., Kindap, T., Air pollution modeling, pollution reduction and exposure analysis in Marmara Region, Balıkesir Üniversitesi Fen Bilim. Enstitüsü Derg., 2014, 16(1): 27-46.

[32] Provincial Environmental Status Reports (PESR), 2012-2018, Directorate General of Environmental Impact Assessment, Permit and Inspection, Republic of Turkey Ministry of Environment and Urbanisation, https://ced.csb.gov.tr/il-cevre-durum-raporlari-i-82671. [Accessed: 09.02.2020]

[33] TUIK, 2021, https://data.tuik.gov.tr/ (Access: 19.03.2021).

[34] UNSD, Municipal Waste collection Data, United Nations Statistical Division, 2011, https://unstats.un- .org/unsd/environment/municipalwaste.htm (accessed date:22.03.202).

[35] Ezeah C., Fazakerley J., Byrne T. Tourism Waste Management in the European Union: Lessons Learned from Four Popular EU Tourist Destinations, American Journal of Climate Change, 2015, 4, 431- 445.

[36] Ramaswamy, S. and Sathis Kumar, Ganasen, Tourism and Environment: Pave the Way for Sustainable Eco-Tourism (March 5, 2010). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1565366 or http://dx.doi. org/10.2139/ssrn.1565366.

[37] Kawai, K., & Tasaki, T. Revisiting estimates of municipal solid waste generation per capita and their reliability. Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, 2016, 18(1), 1-13.

[38] Majlessi, M., Zamanzadeh, M., Alavi, N., Amanidaz, N., & Bakhshoodeh, R. Generation rates and current management of municipal, construction and demolition wastes in Tehran. Journal of material cycles and waste management, 2019, 21(1), 191-200.

[39] Mazzanti, M., Zoboli, R. Municipal Waste Kuznets Curves: Evidence on Socio-Economic Drivers and Policy Effectiveness from the EU. Environ Resource Econ, 2009, 44, 203-230.

[40] Liu C., Wu X. Factors influencing municipal solid waste generation in China: A multiple statistical analysis study, Waste Management & Research, 2010, 29(4), 371-378.

[41] Alajmi, R.G. The Relationship between Economic Growth and Municipal Solid Waste & Testing the EKC Hypothesis: Analysis for Saudi Arabia, Journal of International Business Research and Marketing, 2016, 1(5), 20-25.

[42] Abdel-Shafy, H. I., & Mansour, M. S. Solid waste issue: Sources, composition, disposal, recycling, and valorization. Egyptian journal of petroleum, 2018, 27(4), 1275-1290.

[43] Al-Ghouti, M. A., Khan, M., Nasser, M. S., Al Saad, K., & Heng, O. E. Recent advances and applications of municipal solid wastes bottom and fly ashes: Insights into sustainable management and conservation of resources. Environmental Technology & Innovation, 2020. 101267.

[44] Zheng, S., Liu, W., Zhi, Q. Cleaner waste management: a review based on the aspects of technology, market and policy. Energy Procedia, 2016, 104, 492- 497.

[45] Kumar, A., & Agrawal, A. Recent trends in solid waste management status, challenges, and potential for the future Indian cities-A review. Current Research in Environmental Sustainability, 2020, 2, 100011.

[46] Dyson, B., Bin Chang, N., Forecasting municipal solid waste generation in a fast-growing urban region with system dynamics modeling, Waste Manag., 2005, 25(7): 669-679.

[47] Bandara, NJGJ, Hettiaratchi, J.P.A., Wirasinghe, S.C., Pilapiiya, S., Relation of waste generation and composition to socio-economic factors: A case study, Environ. Monit. Assess., 2007, 135(1-3): 31-39.

[48] Mateu-Sbert, J., Ricci-Cabello, I., Villalonga-Olives, E., Cabeza-Irigoyen, E., The impact of tourism on municipal solid waste generation: The case of Menorca Island (Spain), Waste Manag., 2013, 33(12):2589-2593.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.30564/re.v3i1.2895

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright © 2021 Author(s)


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.