Study of Bio-fertilizer Produced from Agro-waste (Sesame Straw) and Cow Dung Using Eisenia fetida and Perionyx sansibaricus in Arid Environment

K. R. Panwar (Department of Zoology, Govt. PG College Osian, Jodhpur, India)
G. Tripathi (Department of Zoology, J. N. V. University, Jodhpur, India)


In this study, an analysis of organic fertilizer of an agro-waste (Sesame straw) plus cow dung was carried out using an epigeic earthworm species Eisenia fetida and Perionyx sansibaricus. Sesame straw is abundantly produced after each harvesting of the crop in Kharif season in arid region of tropical India. The compost produced in presence and absence of earthworm exhibit significant (P<0.001) and non-significant (P>0.05) changes in physicochemical properties respectively. In control bedding, the values of water holding capacity enhanced significantly (P<0.05) by 1.28 fold, while organic carbon and C/N ratio decreased significantly (P<0.05) by 19.93% and 31.25% respectively after 60 days of composting.Working of E. fetida in the bedding material showed significant (P<0.001) difference in the level of pH, electrical conductivity, water holding capacity, organic carbon, total nitrogen, C/N ratio, available phosphorous and available potassium. After 60 days of working of P. sansibaricus, these physicochemical properties of the bedding substrate also changed significantly (P<0.001). Analysis of vermibed showed a gradual increase in electrical conductivity, water holding capacity, total nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium by 1.51, 1.86, 1.95, 1.78 and 1.75 fold respectively. While the values of pH, organic carbon and C/N ratio declined by 9.30%, 41.80% and 71.48% respectively within 60 days of decomposition. Thus, E. fetida and P. sansibaricus can be applied for production of organic fertilizer of sesame chaff plus cow dung to fulfill the requirement of bio-fertilizers for organic farming and agro-waste management in arid environment.


Organic fertilizer; Sesame straw; Earthworm; Physicochemical properties

Full Text:



[1] Anderson, J. M. and Ingram, J. S. I. (1993) Soil organic matter and organic carbon. In: Tropical soil Biology and Fertility, A hand book of Methods (J. M. Anderson and J. S. I. Ingram, Eds)., P. 221, CAB International, Wallingford, UK.

[2] Applhof, M. (1980) Household scale vermicomposting. In: Research needs Workshop on the role of earthworm in the stabilization of organic residues, April 9-12, Hickory Corners, Michigan, USA.

[3] Balamurugam, V. and Vijayalakshmi, G. S. (2004) Response of Eisenia fetida, Savigny in Cassia auriculata leaves supplemented with different animal wastes. J. Environ. Ecoplan., 8: 245-248.

[4] Delgado, M., Bigeriego, M., Walter, I. and Calvo, R. (1995) Use of the California red worm in sewage sludge transformation. Turrialba, 45: 33-41.

[5] Elvira, C., Sampedro, L., Benitez, E. and Nogales, R. (1998) Vermicomposting of sludges from paper mill and dairy industries with Eisenia andrei: a pilot scale study. Bioresour. Technol., 63: 205-211.

[6] Garg, P., Sharma, S. and Satya, S. (2006) Culturing of exotic (Eisenia fetida) and local (Allolobophoraparva) earthworm species in different substrates for rural wastemanagement. 2nd Jn.Int.Conf. (Sust. Ener. Environ.), 21-23 Nov., 2006.

[7] Goswami, B. and Kalita, M. C. (2000) Efficiency of some indigenous earthworm species of Assam and characterization through vermitechnology. Indian J. Environ. Ecoplan., 3: 341-344.

[8] Haimi, G. and Huhta, V. (1986) Capacity of various organic residues to support adequate earthworm biomass for vermicomposting. Biol. Fert. Soils, 2: 23- 27.

[9] Hand, P., Haynes, W. A., Satchell, J. E. and Frankland, J. C. (1988) The vermicomposting of cow slurry by earthworms. In: Waste and environmental management (ed.) C. A. Edwards and E. F. Neuhauser. SPB Acad. Pub., Hague.

[10] Hartenstein, R., Neuhauser, E. F. and Kaplan, D. L. (1979) A progress report on the potential use of earthworm in sludge management. In: Proc. 8th Nat. Sludge Conf. Silver Spring, Md., pp. 238-241.

[11] Jackson, M. L. (1967) Soil chemical analysis. Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi, pp. 183-192.

[12] Joshi, N. and Sharma, S. (2010) Physicochemical characterization of sulphidationpressmud composted and vermicompostedpressmud. Rep. Opin., 2: 79-82.

[13] Julka, J. M. (1993) Distribution pattern in Indian earthworms. In: Earthworm Resources and Vermiculture: Zoological Survey of India. Calcutta. pp. 27-31.

[14] Kale, R. D. (1998) Natural gift for utilization of organic wastes. In: Earthworm ecology. (Edwards, C. A., ed.). New York, St. Kucie Press.

[15] Kaushik, P. and Garg, V. K. (2003) Vermicomposting of mixed soil textile mill sludge and cow dung with the epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida. Bioresour. Technol., 90: 311-316.

[16] Kaviraj and Sharma, S. (2003) Municipal solid waste management through vermicomposting employing exotic and local species of earthworms. Bioresour. Technol., 90: 169-173.

[17] Lee K. E. (1992) Some trends and opportunities in earthworm research or Darwin’s children. The future of our discipline. Soil Biol. Biochem., 24: 1765- 1771.

[18] Mansell, G. P., Syers and Gregg, P. E. H. (1981) Plant availability of phosphorus in dead herbage ingested by surface casting earthworm. Soil Biol. Biochem., 13: 163-167.

[19] Nath, G., Singh, K. and Singh, D. K. (2009) Chemical analysis of vermicomposts/vermiwash of different combinations of animal, agro and kitchen wastes. Aus. J. Bas. Appl. Sci., 3: 3672-3676.

[20] Ndegwa, P.M., S.A. Thompson, and K.C. Das (2000). Effects of stocking density and feedingrate on vermicomposting of biosolids. Bioresource Techology, 71, 5-12.

[21] Panwar K. R. (2017), Role of Earthworm (Eisenia fetida) on Organic Waste Management and Pollution Control in Indian Thar Desert. Int. J. Scient.Res. Sci. Technol. 2017, 3(8), 1058-1062.

[22] Panwar, K. R. and Tripathi, G. (2021) “Qualitative Study of Organic Fertilizer of Agrowaste (Cumin Straw) Plus Cow dung Using Earthworm Species Eisenia fetida and Perionyx sansibaricus.” Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences, vol. 9, no. 2: 167-171. DOI: 10.12691/aees-9-2-7.

[23] Panwar, K.R. and Tripathi G. (2017), Studies on agrowaste conversion efficiency of the earthworm species Eisenia fetida and Perionyx sansibaricus. J. Exp. Zool., India, Vol. 20, Supplementum 1, 2017, pp. 1453-1457.

[24] Parthasarathi, K. (2007) Influence of moisture on the activity of Perionyx excavatus (Perrier) and microbial-nutrient dynamics of pressmud vermicompost. Iran. J. Environ. Heal. Sci. Eng., 4: 147-156.

[25] Pattnaik, S. and Reddy, M. V. (2010) Nutrient status of vermicompost of urban green waste produced by three earthworm species-Eisenia fetida, Eudrilus eugeniae and Perionyx excavatus. Appl. Environ. Soil Sci., 10: 1-13.

[26] Ponnuraj, M., MuruGesan, A. G. and Sukumaran, N. (1998) Effect of different organic wastes on fecundity of two earthworms Lampitomauritii (Kinberg) and Perionyx excavatus (Perrier). J. Environ. Biol., 19: 57-61.

[27] Rampal, R. and Sharma, D. (2007) Vermicompost potential of various local earthworm species of Jammu on Parthenium weed. Ind. J. Environ. Ecoplan., 14: 611-614.

[28] Ruz Jerez, E., Ball, P. R. and Tillman (1988) The role of earthworm in nitrogen release from herbage residues. In: Nitrogen Efficiency in agriculture Soils (Jackson, D. S. and smith, K. A., eds.)., pp. 355-37.

[29] Satchell, J. E. and Martin, K. (1984) Phosphatase activity in earthworm faeces. J. Soil Biol. Biochem., 16: 191-194.

[30] Scheilds, E. B. (1971) Raising earthworms for profit. 9th Shield Publication, Elgin.

[31] Selladuria, G., Anbusaravanan, N., Shyam, K. P., Palanivel, K. and Kadalmani, B. (2010) Recycling of distillery sludge from sugarcane industry using bioresource technology. J. Appl. Sci. Res., 6: 218-233.

[32] Senapati, B. K. and Dash, M. C. (1982) Earthworms as waste conditioner. J. Int. Engin., 11: 53-57.

[33] Senesi, N. (1989) Composted materials as organic fertilizers. The Sci. Total Environ., 81/82: 521-524.

[34] Simard, R. R. (1993) Ammonium acetate extractable elements. In: Siol sampling and methods of analysis. (Martin, R. and Carter, S., eds.) Lewis Publisher, Florida, USA, 39-43.

[35] Suthar, S. and Singh, S., (2008). Vermicomposting of domestic waste using two epigeic earthworms (Perionyx excavatus and Perionyx sansibaricus). Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol., 5, 99-106.

[36] Tripathi, G. and Bhardwaj, P., (2004). Comparative studies on biomass production, life cycles and composting efficiency of Eisenia fetida (Savigny) and Lampitomauritii (Kinberg). Bioresour. Technol., 92, 275-283.

[37] Walkley A. (1947) A critical examination a rapid method for determining organic carbon in soils: Effect of variation in digest conditions and / or inorganic soil constituents. Soil Sci: 251-263.

[38] Wong, J. M. C., Li, G. X. and Wong, M. H. (1997) Feasibility of using coal ash residue as co-composting materials for sewage sludge. Environ. Technol., 18: 563-568.



  • There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright © 2021 K. R. Panwar, G. Tripathi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.