Effect of Nitrogen and Potassium on Yield, Yield Components and Essential Oil of Black Caraway (Bunium Persicum L.)

Hamidreza Zabihi (Soil and Water Department, Khorasan-Razavi Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Centre, Agricultural Research, Education & Extension organization(AREEO), Mashhad, Iran)
Mojtaba Nourihoseini (Post PhD student of Soil Science Department, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad and Soil and Water Department, Khorasan-Razavi Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Centre, Agricultural Research, Education & Extension organization, Mashhad, Iran Dept. of Soil and Water, Khorasan-Razavi Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Centre, Mashhad(AREEO), Iran.)

Article ID: 596

DOI: https://doi.org/10.30564/re.v1i1.596


Fertilization is the main factor stimulating yield of plants, nitrogen and potassium are among must important essential nutrients. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of different rates of nitrogen and potassium on yield and yield components of Black caraway (Bunium persicum L.). The experiment  was on the  base of randomized complete block design with three replications  for 3 years in Torogh agriculture and natural resources research station, iran. Plow, disc, leveling, creating planted rows and making plots was performed in mid-September. All potassium fertilizer and half of the nitrogen were applied at planting. The rest of the nitrogen was applied in the form of top-dressing at flowering stage in the second week of April. The size of each experimental plot was 4 × 3 meters in 6 rows and 12 lines.    Treatments were 4 levels of nitrogen (0,40,80and120 kgN/ha in the form of urea), and three levels of potassium (0, 40 and 80 kg k2O/ha in the form of sop). The results showed that the effect of nitrogen and potassium on grain yield, yield components, straw yield and essential oil content was significant (P<0.05). Nitrogen rate of 40 kg/ha increased grain yield and some yield components and essential oil. Whereas the higher rate decreases grain yield and yield components, and increases  straw yield. Interaction of nitrogen and potassium on grain yield, straw yield and number of umbels per plant, was significant(P<0.05).


Macronutrients, Medicinal plant, Potash, Seed yield

Full Text:



[1] Askarzade, M., B. Gholami and. E. negari. Study of qualitative and quantitative yeild of mountain cumin (Bunium persicum) ecotypes of iran in terms of Mashhad weather, National177 Conference on Sustainable Development medicinal plants, 2005. (In persian)

[2] Azza,A.E.E.,S.F. Hendawy,E.E.Aziz.,E.A,Omer. Enhancing growth, yield and essential oil of caraway plantsby nitrogen and potassium fertilizers. International Journal of Academic research, 2010, 2 (3).

[3] Bagheri, A. Determine the optimum 181 amount of nitrogen, row spacing cultivation of cumin in the Fars province. The first National Conference of cumin (Proceedings), 2004, Iran. Sabzevar. (In persian)

[4] Badary,O.A. Thymoquinon attenuates ifosfamide- induced Fanconi syndrome in rats and enhances its antitumor activity in mice.J.Ethnopharmacol., 1999, 67:135-142.

[5] Fagaria N K, et al. Effect of Nitrogen, Phosphous and Potassium Fertilization on yield

[6] and yield attributing characters of cumin crop (cyminum L, kreuz – kummel), Journal of soil for planting and customers, 1972, 132 (1) :30-34.

[7] Khalid,A.K. E valuation of black cumin oil under various nitrogen treatments.Journal of materials and environmental sciences. 2018, 9(3).

[8] Naseripoor,M.T. Effects of NPK on growth and yield of cumin. Master thesis agronomy,Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modarres University, 1995, (In persian)

[9] Omidbaigi, R. Production and Processing of Medicinal Plants. Vol. II. Publication of

[10] arrahan-e-Nashr, Tehran, 2004: 108. (In Persian)

[11] Ozguven, M., N.Sekeroglu. Agricultural practices for high yield and quality of black cumin cultivated in turkey. Acta Horticult, 2007: 756:329-337.

[12] Weglars, Z. Production of biennial Caraway for seed and Essential oil:(ed) Caraway,The Genus Carum. Department of Medicinal Plants, warsaw Agricultuer University,Nowoursynowska, 2006, 166: 02-787, Warsaw,Poland.

[13] wiedenhoeft. A.C. Plantnutrition. Hopkins,W.G(ed). The green world. Chelsea house, NewYork, 2006.

[14] Yimam,E.,A.Nebiyu.,A.Mohammed.,andM.Getachew. Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers on growth, yield and yield component of blackcumin at konta district, sowthwest Ethiopia. Journal of agronomy, 14(3):112-120.

Copyright © 2019 Hamidreza Zabihi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.