Cladding Modified Fiber Bragg Grating for Copper Ions Detection

Husam Abduldaem Mohammed (Electronic and Communication Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Baghdad,47202, Iraq)
Aqiel Almamori (Electronic and Communication Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Baghdad,47202, Iraq)
Ali A. Alwahib (Department of Laser and Optoelectronics Engineering, University of Technology, Baghdad, 47202, Iraq)

Article ID: 3749



This paper reports a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) as a biosensor. The FBGs were etched using a chemical agent,namely,hydrofluoric acid (HF). This implies the removal of some part of the cladding layer. Consequently, the evanescent field propagating out of the core will be closer to the environment and become more sensitive to the change in the surrounding. The proposed FBG sensor was utilized to detect toxic heavy metal ions aqueous medium namely, copper ions (Cu2+). Two FBG sensors were etched with 20 and 40 μm diameters and fabricated. The sensors were studied towards Cu2+ with different concentrations using wavelength shift as a result of the interaction between the evanescent field and copper ions. The FBG sensors showed a good response in terms of significant wavelength shift in corresponding to varying Cu2+ concentrations when immersed in aqueous mediums. The sensors exhibited excellent repeatability towards Cu ions.The results demonstrate that the smaller FBG etching diameter, the better optical response in terms of wavelength and linearity. 


Fiber Bragg grating; Optical fiber sensors; Etched fiber; C-band; D-heavy metals

Full Text:



[1] R. Verma and B. D. Gupta, “Detection of heavy metal ions in contaminated water by surface plasmon resonance based optical fibre sensor using conducting polymer and chitosan,” Food Chem., vol. 166, no. 6,pp. 568-575, 2015.

[2] Y. Zhang, M. Xu, Y. Wang, F. Toledo, and F. Zhou,“Studies of metal ion binding by apo-metallothioneins attached onto preformed self-assembled monolayers using a highly sensitive surface plasmon resonance spectrometer,” Sensors Actuators, B Chem., vol. 123, pp. 784-792, 2007.

[3] P. Niu, C. Fernández-Sánchez, M. Gich, C. Ayora,and A. Roig, “Electroanalytical Assessment of Heavy Metals in Waters with Bismuth Nanoparticle-Porous Carbon Paste Electrodes,” Electrochim. Acta, vol.165, pp. 155-161, 2015.

[4] Y. W. Fen, W. M. M. Yunus, Z. A. Talib, and N. A.Yusof, “Development of surface plasmon resonance sensor for determining zinc ion using novel active nanolayers as probe,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A Mol.Biomol. Spectrosc., vol. 134, pp. 48-52, 2015.

[5] K. C. Armstrong, C. E. Tatum, R. N. Dansby-Sparks,J. Q. Chambers, and Z. L. Xue, “Individual and simultaneous determination of lead, cadmium, and zinc by anodic stripping voltammetry at a bismuth bulk electrode,” Talanta, vol. 82, pp. 675-680, 2010.

[6] Y. W. Fen and W. M. M. Yunus, “Surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy as an alternative for sensing heavy metal ions: a review,” Sens. Rev., vol. 33, pp.305-314, 2013.

[7] R. K. Dutta, S. Sarkar, S. S. Ram, M. Sudarshan,R. Acharya, and a. V. R. Reddy, “Applications of EDXRF and INAA techniques for studying impact of industries to the environment,” J. Radioanal. Nucl.Chem., vol. 302, pp. 1519-1523, 2014.

[8] G.-H. Yao, R.-P. Liang, C.-F. Huang, Y. Wang, and J.-D. Qiu, “Surface plasmon resonance sensor based on magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers amplification for pesticide recognition,” Anal.Chem., vol.85, no. 24, pp. 11944-11951, 2013.

[9] A. M. Shrivastav, S. P. Usha, and B. D. Gupta, “Fiber optic profenofos sensor based on surface plasmon resonance technique and molecular imprinting,” Biosens. Bioelectron., vol. 79, pp. 150-157,2016.

[10] S. S. Yee, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sensors Actuators B, vol. 54, pp. 3-15,1999.

[11] C. Caucheteur, M. Loyez, Á. González-Vila, and R. Wattiez, “Evaluation of gold layer configuration for plasmonic fiber grating biosensors,” Opt. Express,vol. 26, no. 18, p. 24154, 2018.

[12] F. Chiavaioli, F. Baldini, S. Tombelli, C. Trono and A.Giannetti, “Biosensing with optical fiber gratings,” in Nanophotonics vol. 6, ed, 2017, p. 663.

[13] B. N. Shivananju, P. Pal, S. Yamdagni, M. M. Varma and S. Asokan, “Nanomaterial-coated etched fiber Bragg grating sensors,” in Workshop on Recent Advances in Photonics (WRAP), 2013, pp.1-2.

[14] S. N. Abdullah, H. A. Jewad and HA Mohammed,Design Considerations of Laser Source in a Ring Network Based on Fiber distributed Data Interface (FDDI), Iraqi Journal of Laser, University of Baghdad, Iraq, part A, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2002, pp.39-46.

[15] H. A. Mohammed, N. A. Rahman, M. Z. Ahmad,M. H. A. Bakar, S. B. A. Anas, M. A. Mahdi and M.H. Yaacob, “Sensing performance of Modified Single Mode Optical Fiber Coated with Nanomaterials Based Ammonia Sensors Operated in the C-Band,”IEEE Access, 2018.

[16] I. Z. M. Ahad, S. W. Harun, S. N. Gan and S. W.Phang, “Effect of Polymerization Temperatures on Polyaniline Coated Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor for Chloroform Detection,” vol. 382, no. 1, p.1800088,2018.

[17] D. Yang, Nanocomposite Films for Gas Sensing, Advances in Nanocomposites - Synthesis,Characterization and Industrial Applications. 2011.


  • There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright © 2021 Husam Abduldaem Mohammed

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.