Epidemiology and Control of Congo Fever in Sacrificial Animals of Pakistan

Hafiz Muhammad Rizwan (Section of Parasitology, Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Narowal, Sub campus UVAS, Lahore.)
Muhammad Sohail Sajid (Department of Parasitology, University of agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan)
Haider Abbas (Section of Parasitology, Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Narowal, Sub campus UVAS, Lahore)
Muhammad Fiaz Qamar (Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Jhang, Sub campus UVAS, Lahore)
Qaiser Akram (Section of Microbiology, Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Narowal, Sub campus UVAS, Lahore)
Mahvish Maqbool (Department of Parasitology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan)

Abstract


The cases and deaths due to Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) [49] virus commonly known as Congo virus (fatality rate 15%) have been reported throughout Pakistan from the last five years especially during religious occasion, Eid-ul-Azha. The annual increase in death rates due to CCHF demonstrate the importance of awareness of Congo fever at academia as well as public level. The symptoms of Congo fever which appear one to nine days after tick bite, include sudden high fever, muscle aches, abdominal pain, headache, dizziness, sore eyes, jaundice, mood swings, confusion, aggression, and sensitivity to light. The other signs include sore throat, joint pain, vomiting, diarrhea, hemorrhages, and bleeding from skin and large intestine. The Infection has been reported in many species of wild as well as domestic animals including hares, cattle, sheep, goats, dogs, mice and hedgehogs. At least 31 species of Hyalomma, Boophilus, Rhipicephalus, Dermacentor (Ixodidae: hard ticks) act as vector of CCHF in which transovarial, transstadial and venereal transmission occurs. The virus attacks the immune system of the host and influences the immune cells. The Congo fever virus can be isolated from blood, plasma and many body tissues (kidneys, liver, spleen, lungs, brain and bone marrow). Mice inoculation, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) can be used for detection of the infection. Furthermore, IgM and IgG antibodies against CCHFV can also be detected and quantified. Education of general public, tick control with acaricides, use of anti-CCHFV immunoglobulin, usage of approved repellents to prevent tick bites, wearing neutral-coloured garments, application of a permethrin spray to the clothing, avoiding tall grasses and shrubs, applying sunscreen, avoiding direct contact with the blood or tissues of animals are the factors for successful prevention of the infection.


Keywords


Congo fever; Transmission; Eid-ul-Azha; Epidemiology; Control

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.30564/vsr.v1i2.1347

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Copyright © 2019 Hafiz Muhammad Rizwan, Muhammad Sohail Sajid, Haider Abbas, Muhammad Fiaz Qamar, Qaiser Akram


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